Lithium-Ion Battery Cell

A lithium-ion battery cell  is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an  intercalated lithium compound as one electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in a non-rechargeable lithium battery. The electrolyte, which allows for ionic movement, and the two electrodes are the constituent components of a lithium-ion battery cell.

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has signed a technology transfer agreement with Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd for the manufacture of space grade lithium ion cells for the space programme and other national requirements.

Advantages of Li ion cells

  • High energy density:The much greater energy density is one of the chief advantages of a lithium ion battery or cell. The much higher power density offered by lithium ion batteries is a distinct advantage.
  • Self-discharge:The rate of self-discharge is much lower than that of other rechargeable cells such as Ni-Cad and NiMH forms.
  • No requirement for priming: Some rechargeable cells need to be primed when they receive their first charge. There is no requirement for this with lithium ion cells and batteries.
  • Low maintenance:One major lithium ion battery advantage is that they do not require much maintenance to ensure their performance. Ni-Cad cells required a periodic discharge to ensure that they did not exhibit the memory effect. As this does not affect lithium ion cells, this process or other similar maintenance procedures are not required.
  • Variety of types available:   There are several types of lithium ion cell available. This advantage of lithium ion batteries can mean that the right technology can be used for the particular application needed. Some forms of lithium ion battery provide a high current density and are ideal for consumer mobile electronic equipment. Others are able to provide much higher current levels and are ideal for power tools and electric vehicles.

Challenges

  • Lithium ion cells and batteries are not as robust as some other rechargeable technologies. They require protection from being over charged and discharged too far.
  • Typically they are around 40% more costly to manufacture than Nickel cadmium cells. This is a major factor when considering their use in mass produced consumer items where any additional costs are a major issue. [Mint]

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