Article 29-30, Cultural & Educational Rights in Indian Constitution

Both Article 29 and Articles 30 guarantee certain right to the minorities. Article 29 protects the interests of the minorities by making a provision that any citizen / section of citizens having a distinct language, script or culture have the right to conserve the same. Article 29 mandates that no discrimination would be done on the ground of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.

Article 30 mandates that all minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

  • Article 30 is called a Charter of Education Rights.
  • Madarsas are administrated by the Article 30.

Article 30 provides an absolute right to the minorities that they can establish their own linguistic and religious institutions and at the same time can also claim for grant-in-aid without any discrimination.

Issues Related to Minority Institutions

Can a Madarsa Can be acquired by the Government?

Yes, The article 30(1A) was inserted by the 44th Amendment Act 1978. This article provides that if while making any law which provides for the compulsory acquisition of any property of any educational institution established and administered by a minority, the State shall ensure that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for the acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict or abrogate the right guaranteed under that clause. This clause makes it clear that such acquisition requires conformable compensation.

Can a Madarsa teach Computers?

In context with the Kerala Education Bill 1957, The supreme court of India said that:

Article 30 does not say that minorities based on religion should establish the educational institutions for teaching their language / religion only. The minorities would desire that their children be eligible for higher university education, the education institutions of minorities would also include the general secular education.

Article 31: Repealed

Article 19(1)(f) Right to acquire, hold and dispose of property and Article 31 were repealed by the Constitution 44th Amendment Act 1978. A new part was inserted in Part XII of the Constitution and right to property has been transferred as Article 300 A. This will be detailed when we study part XII. The main points are:

  • Right to Property is not a fundamental right but a legal right
  • One can not approach supreme court for remedy under article 32 on violation of his / her right to property because it is not a fundamental right.


  1. Tapan Ghosh

    May 2, 2015 at 4:01 pm

    This article is not well written. It failed to focus on the main issue. According to Article 30 & 30.1 empower the religious and linguistic minorities to establish and run/administer their own educational institution and govt cannot interfere in those. But the term ‘Minority Institution’ has not been defined. According to present form of this article 30, an institution without even a single student from minority community, can become ‘minority institution’ because that has been started by a few persons from minority community.

  2. A.B.Paul

    August 14, 2015 at 10:14 am

    Under the shelter of Article 30 mostly Christian’s institutions run by the (single person) Priests and they are become the mafia to loot money instead of charity or welfare of their own Christian community. But these minority institutions objective to establish was to promote and welfare of their own community but within the Article 30 these institutions are become the big violator of education right of christian minority community. This seems that this Article 30 is only guaranteed to only Christian Priests to loot money in the context of Christian community.

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