Tea Production in India
After water, tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea is an evergreen plant that mainly grows in tropical and subtropical climates.
Requirements for Tea Cultivation
Tea cultivation requires the following:
Climate: A moderately hot and humid climate, which is preferred for better yield, crop distribution and quality.
Temperature: An ambient temperature within 13°C and 28-32°C is conducive for growth of tea. Maximum ambient temperature above 32°C is unfavorable for optimum photosynthesis. Heat is synergically disastrous for the crop if it is accompanied by low humidity.
Winter Dormancy: In India, the temperature in winters is around or below 12°C and there is hardly any growth during this period. Flushing in the tea plants starts from March with the rise in temperature.
Soil: Acidic Soil with around 4.5-5.5 pH. Suitable soil for tea cultivation is well drained, deep, friable loamy soil. The best soil for tea cultivation is forest soils rich in humus and iron content.
Tea grows better when planted along the shady trees. Tea plantations need cheap and efficient labour.
Map of Tea Producing areas in India
India is the largest producer and consumer of black tea in the world. Tea is grown in 16 states in India. Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala account for about 95 per cent of total tea production.
Area under Tea Production in India
India’s major Tea Producing Districts/ Areas are as follows:
- Assam: Darrang, Goalpara, Kamrup, Lakhimpur , Dibrugarh, Nowgong, Sibsagar, Cachar , Karbi Anlong , North Cachar
- West Bengal : Darjeeling, Terai (west Dinajpur), Doors (Cooch Bihar) .
- Tamil Nadu: Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli, Madurai, Coimbatore , Nilgiris
- Kerala: Cannanore, Palghat, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Trichur, Trivandrum, Quilon, Kottayam, Ernakulam, Idukki, Wynaad
- Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan
The Largest state with area under Tea Plantations in India is Assam. The following table shows the states in India with Tea Plantations. Area under Tea Production in India are shown in below:
Region wise Production Data of Tea