GS-II: Devolution of Powers and Finances Up to Local Levels
Despite various reforms by the central and state governments to overhaul the urban local bodies (ULBs), several challenges remain with regard to their efficient functioning. Elucidate.
Urban local bodies (ULBs) were formed by the 74th Constitutional amendment act. Many reforms are brought by the central and state government to overhaul the ULBs like filling up vacancies, delegation of funds, etc. Despite this, several challenges remain like: ..
Delivery of public goods and services at the grassroot level has remained ineffective in India due to various issues faced by local self governance. Highlight the issues and suggest remedial measures.
Institutions of local self governance were established by the 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendment act of India. Their effectiveness in the modern times has been questioned. Issues faced by local institutions: Lack of proper financial and political power devolution. E.g. ..
The primary reason behind local self government institutions failing to fulfill their envisaged objectives is the attitude of state governments towards them. Discuss in the context of constitutional provisions and recent experience of the working of these institutions in India.
Local self government has been a part of Indian polity since historical times (Rig vedic Sabha, Chola village assembly). Constitutionally, the 73rd and 74th amendment provides mandatory provisions for self government in states. Constitution of state election commission to ensure ..
Highlight the need to establish an effective and functional relationship between Gram Panchayats and Self Help Groups (SHGs). Also suggest some measures to achieve it.
Adequate development at village level can be ensured through proper convergence of all entities working there. SHGs and Gram Panchayats work in many mutually inclusive areas like skill development, education, health services, etc. Need for effective cooperation: Functioning of SHGs ..
Highlight the challenges associated with the implementation of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 and suggest measures to ensure its implementation in both letter and spirit.
The Panchayats (Extension to scheduled areas) Act, 1996 is hallmark of spirit of Democratic decentralisation and the Gandhian democracy in India. Salient features: 73rd amendment modified to suit local customs of the people in scheduled areas. Power of Gram Sabha ..
The Aspirational District Programme not only mark a change in the policy focus from output to outcome but also from a top-down approach to a collaborative form of governance. Analyse.
The aspirational districts programme is an initiative to expedite the developmental outcomes in 114 most backward districts on a wide range of socio-economic parameters. From output to outcome: Goals aligned on detailed outcomes rather than merely on scale & output. ..