India Ratifies ILO Core Conventions To Fight Child Labour

To affirm its commitment towards child labour free India, India has ratified two Core Conventions of International Labour Organization (ILO), namely, Convention 138 regarding admission of age to employment and Convention 182 regarding worst forms of Child Labour. Instruments of ratification were handed over by the Indian government to ILO.


The two conventions aim at ending child labour and ensure minimum basic education for children.

  • The Minimum Age Convention (138): The convention requires the party States to pursue a national policy for abolition of child labour and raise progressively the minimum age for employment. It is concerned with minimum age for admission to employment. So far, it has been ratified by 169 countries.
  • Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (No 182) or Convention 182: It is concerned with the prohibition and immediate action for elimination of the worst forms of Child Labour. It has been ratified by 180 countries.


  • The ratification of these conventions will be step ahead in direction of achieving goal of eradication of child labour from country as it would be legally binding to comply with the provisions of the Conventions.
  • By ratifying these conventions, India will also join a majority of the countries who have adopted the legislation to prohibit and place severe restrictions on the employment and work of children.
  • With ratification by India, the convention 182 will now cover more than 99% of the world’s children. Similarly, Convention 138will cover almost 80% of children across the world.
  • With this ratification, India has ratified six out of eight core ILO conventions.
  • The ratification will also ensure compliance to Child labour (Prohibition and Prevention) Amendment Act, 2016. The act bans employment of children below 14 years of age in all occupations and processes. The act also prohibits employment of adolescents (14-18 years of age) in hazardous occupations.
  • Those countries who have ratified this convention has to undergo periodic reporting every four years. This would compel the government to make progress in this front.

ILO and India

India is the founding member of ILO, which came into existence in 1919. India has so far ratified 6 out of 8 conventions. The two core conventions which are yet to be ratified by India are:

  • Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (No 87)
  • Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention (No 98)

The conventions which are already ratified by India are:

  • Forced labour convention (No 29)
  • Abolition of Forced Labour convention (No 105)
  • Equal Remuneration convention (No 100)
  • Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) convention. The convention is related to removing the discrimination between men and
    women in employment and occupation.


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