Notes: Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade (1842-1901) was a distinguished Indian scholar, social reformer and author, sometimes called a Father of renaissance of Western India. He was one of the founding members of the Indian National Congress . He established the “Widow Marriage Association” in 1861 to encourage and popularize it Ranade founded the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha in 1870, to represent the Government, the aspiration of the people. Known to be the mentor and political guru of famous freedom fighters Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and Bal Gangadhar Tilak. He was against caste system, untouchability and was a strong supporter of widow-remarriage.