Economic Growth Development


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is a dynamic E-Book comprising the below UPSC Mains Model Questions as well as their answers written by GKToday team. The PDF E-Book can be instantly downloaded after payment. No Hadcopy is provided.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the Government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Critically examine the potential implications for small sector business and consumers.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Discuss the impact of the GST implementation on inflation and GDP with special reference to the Make in India campaign?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4. Discuss the key elements of fiscal policy of the government.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5. "The overarching framework for India's fiscal policy is provided by the constitution."Amplify.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6. "It appears that the FRBM act and the rules framed for fiscal discipline was an exercise in futility". Discuss suggesting steps towards fiscal discipline with reference to FRBM Act 2003.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7. Differentiate between Induced and Autonomous Investments. Why governments try to boost the autonomous investment?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8. Objectively differentiate between Demand-led, Investment-led and Consumption-led Economic Growth models. Which model suits to Indian Economy? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9. "Economic growth means more output … Development goes beyond this …".In the light of your answer, comment on the performance of the Indian economy since Independence.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10. Distinguish between 'economic development' and 'economic growth'. What are the factors which determine economic development?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11. Define economic development. Do you agree with the view that India has experienced growth but no economic development? Give reasons for your answer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12. Do you agree with the view that growth is a necessary but not sufficient condition for development? Substantiate your answer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13. What is Sustainable Development? Explain the features and strategies of sustainable development.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14. What are the main characteristics of a developing economy? To what extent are they found in Indian Economy?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  15. What are the main causes of underdevelopment of India? Do you think that India is still an underdeveloped country?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16. Higher growth rate of real national income of a country does not necessarily imply its development'. Explain.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17. Critically discuss the factors that determine and influence the economic development of a country.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18. Discuss the importance of Capital Formation in development, while throwing light on key obstacles to capital formation in underdeveloped economies from demand and supply side.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19. Differentiate between human capital and physical capital. What are the sources of human capital formation?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20. How is human capital different from human development? How can the process of human capital formation be accelerated?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21. What factors contribute to the process of human capital formation? Explain the significance and success of educational programmes in India in the context of human capital formation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22. Investment in health and education are the principal sources of human capital formation. Critically evaluate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23. Discuss the reasons and extent of regional disparity in India. What role has been played by Finance commission to fill the gulf of regional disparity?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24. Independent India chose the path of socialism because that was the dominating thought when British left India. Assess Critically.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25. "Economic Development must bring some notable changes in the structural, institutional and technical set up."Throw light.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  26. What is Shetkari Sanghatana? What role has it played in the Indian Economy? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  27. It is very rare that in recent times, India's Nominal GDP is lower than Real GDP. While throwing light on reasons of the same, discuss how it affects producers, consumers and economy as a whole.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  28. What special policy measures you would suggest for full financial inclusion of the disabled? Discuss keeping in focus the problems faced by persons with disabilities in the aftermath of demonetization.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  29. Why it is argued that development model should be demand-driven? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  30. In India, the capital market reforms have been much easier in comparison to banking or insurance. Justify the statement giving appropriate reasons.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31. What are the main shortcomings of using GDP as a measure of economic growth? Discuss while suggesting alternative measures for the same.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32. What is market cap-to-GDP ratio? What does it indicate? Discuss with focus on India's market cap-to-GDP ratio.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  33. Make a critical assessment of the economic situation in current times in India. What short term and long term measures would you suggest to address the situation? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  34. Can the economic growth due to credit based consumption without the increase in investment be sustainable? Discuss keeping India in focus.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  35. With appropriate figures, discuss the significance of household sector in Indian economy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36. The nature of economic growth in India in recent times is often described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favor of your answer. [UPSC, 2015]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37. The measurement of growth using the concept of GDP is one of the key factors that contribute to reduce poverty and uplift the living standard of the people. Discuss the rationale of Inclusive Growth in this context.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  38. What are the major macroeconomic challenges before the Indian economy today?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39. How do you see the effect of the new GDP series on the fortunes of states in India?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40. What in your opinion has been the role of KVIC in India in terms of job creation in the last 5 years?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  41. What is the macroeconomic dilemma faced by the new Indian Government?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  42. The economy must be evaluated in terms of how much it contributes to he ease of our living. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  43. Indian economy presents a paradox of high savings rate with low-income and high savings rate with low growth rate. Analyse.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  44. What are the restrictions RBI has placed on the PMC Bank?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  45. Examine the impact of the corporate tax cut on the consumer prices
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46. What are the recommendations made by the task force on direct tax code on dividend distribution tax?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  47. Examine the causes of the economic slowdown in India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  48. Highlight the standings of various countries in the Global Competitiveness Index, 2019. Discuss the factors which led to decline in the rankings of India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  49. It is said that the world is heading towards another economic slowdown after the 2008 financial crisis. Examine the trends in economic growth across advanced and emerging economies.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  50. It is said that current situations has made an economic slowdown inevitable. Examine how the US ha been at the centre of these factors resulting in slowdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  51. The rate cut by the RBI is expected to address the two structural issues haunting the Indian Economy. What are those issues?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  52. While India is expected to sustain its growth trajectory it is facing number of developmental challenges. Discuss in the light of the World Bank report.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  53. Discuss the trends in share of younger population in MNREGA workers.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  54. Indian Financial Sector is facing contagion Risk. Discuss the findings based on the report of S&P Global Ratings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  55. Can political instability at the state level disrupt the India growth story by disrupting the Indian Infrastructure buildup and discouraging foriegn investment in the country?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  56. As traditional models of capitalism fail to deliver on the needs of the society, discuss whether an alternative model of capitalism can rectify the current situation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  57. Steps that RBI can take to Boost Growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  58. The level of bad loans under PM Mudra Yojana have been increasing, analyse the steps which need to be taken to fix the Mudra Scheme.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  59. The once-iconic Air India has witnessed a disastrous fall in the last four decades. What steps should the government take to transform the embattled airline ?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  60. Are recent steps taken by RBI on the co-operative sector front enough or does the Reserve bank needs to do more?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  61. Who is a Fugitive Economic Offender (FEO) and what is the process of declaring a person as a FEO?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62. The Government of India is considering a cut in personal income tax rates. Comment on whether a tax cut can help.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  63. With the Rajya Sabha passing the Recycling of Ships Bill, 2019 to regulate the ship recycling sector, explain why such a bill was needed and its provision?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  64. What is an International Financial Service centre ? Discuss the need for such an authority in India ?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65. Comment on the collapse of the World Trade Organization’s dispute settlement mechanism and how it affects the countries.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  66. With Rising inflation and deceleration of the economy, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in its fifth monetary policy has kept the repo rate unchanged . How does it fare for the economy and what measures can be adopted to boost the economy ?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  67. The government needs a fine balance between rationalising income tax rates and maintaining revenue collection. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  68. The government has recently made amendments to the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC). Discuss the key changes being made and what will be the affects ?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  69. MUDRA NPA Issues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  70. Stagflation in India
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  71. Economic growth: Going Forward
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  72. GST & Its Design
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73. RBI's Operation Twist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74. IMF suggestions to revive India's economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  75. Compliance and Competitiveness with GST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  76. Government Policies and Economic Slowdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  77. MDR charges and UPI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78. GST Collections Fail To Reach Predicted Limit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79. Discuss the National Infrastructure Pipeline and its effects on the Indian Economy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80. Foreign capital is very important for a developing country like India, however there are various concerns associated with it. Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81. Explain the significance of credit rating agencies in India and highlight the issues in their working.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82. Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have a great potential for economic growth, however, they have achieved limited success in India. Mention the factors responsible and also suggest some steps to address the problem.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  83. It is often argued that a circular economy has solutions to the economic problems in India. What are the principles on which circular economy is based? Discuss its relevance in India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  84. Pradhanmantri Jan Dhan Yojna has played a significant role in increasing financial inclusion. Analyze its performance in achieving its objectives.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  85. There is an increasing demand for global minimum tax, across the world. Discuss the significance, prospects, and challenges for India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  86. Throwing light on the role of off-budget borrowings, explain how it helps the government in raising funds for various expenditures. Also examine its desirability.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  87. How land banks can encourage land use efficiency and create economic growth? Discuss in light of increasing prominence of land banks in India. Also, examine the concerns associated with it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  88. Asset monetization is imperative to achieve the goal of $5 trillion economy and fund India’s massive infrastructure needs. In the light of above statement, critically discuss the need of national monetization pipeline. Also discuss the issues that need to be addressed for its success.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  89. The need of the hour is to do away with traditional accounting methods like GDP calculation and move towards more comprehensive methods that accounts for Natural Capital and Ecosystem Services as well to establish link between economy and environment. In this context, discuss the initiatives taken by India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  90. While focusing on the importance of agriculture extension services in India, highlight the challenges faced in implementing it. Discuss the role of National Mission on Agricultural Extension and Technology (NMAET) in this context.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  91. To achieve the goal of $5 trillion economy, it is imperative to put primary focus on private investments. Discuss. Also, highlight the steps taken by government to boost private investments.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  92. India needs a targeted region-specific action plan in order to achieve an equitable distribution of fruits of prosperity, owing to its geographical diversity and varied levels of development across regions. Elaborate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  93. Though Multilateral Development Banks are crucial for holistic development of developing nations like India, there are certain legitimate concerns about their functioning. Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  94. Globalization has ushered rapid GDP growth but it is also making world more and more unequal. Analyse.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  95. The infrastructure is considered as a key determinant of the economic development of a nation. In this context, highlight the issues faced in infrastructure financing in India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  96. The government has renewed its focus on strategic disinvestment in recent times. In this light, examine the rationale behind it and discuss the concerns raised against it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  97. Examine the need of multi-year budgeting in the context of India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  98. Give an account of the hurdles faced in financing of infrastructure in India. Also mention the steps taken by the government to resolve them.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  99. For making Public Finance Management effective, India needs to reengineer its present system and make a transition towards outcome-based budgeting. Analyze.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  100. The labour intensive industries in India have been showing sluggish growth presently. Highlight the factors responsible for this and give some remedial measures.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  101. A fiscal stimulus is seen as an efficient tool for reviving economies from slowdowns; however it alone cannot handle cyclical and structural issues. Discuss in context of India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  102. Highlight the reasons behind declining private investment in India in past few years. Suggest some steps to revive it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  103. The digital financial inclusion in India has seen an exponential growth in past few years. Identify the factors responsible for it and steps taken by the government in this regard. Also, discuss the challenges that remain.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  104. Highlighting the need for India to participate in Global Value Chains (GVCs), mention the associated concerns. Also suggest remedial measures.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  105. Keeping in mind the role played by the states’ finances in affecting the macro-economic stability in India; highlight the issues with States' fiscal management in India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  106. Highlight the key components of SWAMITVA scheme and its intended benefits. Also, discuss the potential issues in its implementation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  107. Bring out arguments surrounding the debate of legalising lobbying in India to promote transparency.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  108. Social auditing can be used as an efficient tool for addressing the monitoring and implementation bottlenecks in success of government schemes in India. Enumerate the steps that have been taken by the government recently in this regard.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  109. The Hybrid Annuity Model has helped to increase investments in road infrastructure by rebalancing project risks between the public and private sectors. Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  110. The e-commerce has grown at an exponential rate in fast few years in India, along with that the need for a comprehensive policy on e-commerce has also grown to safeguard India’s interests globally. Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  111. The FinTech sector has grown significantly in India, discuss its potential and challenges in its mainstreaming.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  112. The modernisation and development of railways is imperative for growth of India. However, railways has been lately facing crunch of funds for capital expenditure, which shows its weak financial position. Comment and suggest ways for better resource generation and utilisation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  113. After doing mergers of several public sector banks, the government is planning for a second round of merger. Analyse how consolidation of banks can help in addressing the existing problems of the banking sector.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  114. A lower value of Incremental Capital Output Ratio (ICOR) is crucial for a developing economy like India. In this context, highlight the factors that limit efficient conversion of savings rate into investments in India. Also, suggest measures to improve it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  115. India has witnessed a positive trend of rising numbers of start-ups in recent years. While analyzing the factors responsible for the same, highlight the challenges that remain. Also, suggest some remedial measures.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  116. For increasing Ease of Doing Business and making India an attractive investment destination, it is imperative to deal with the complexities and high compliance costs associated with existing labour laws at both centre and state level. Discuss. What steps have been taken by the central government to address these challenges?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  117. Discuss the pros and cons of the free-UPI MODEL.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  118. What is the IoRS (Interoperable Regulatory Sandbox) for which RBI recently released an SOP? What needs to be done to get the most out of this initiative?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  119. How big a role is the FMCG sector playing in India’s economic recovery? What are the impediments to this sector’s growth?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  120. Evaluate the performance of the National Asset Reconstruction Company Limited in cleaning up legacy bad loans. What are the major impediments to its effective functioning?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  121. How has the faceless tax regime impacted direct taxes in India? What is the case for a similar system being implemented for GST?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  122. How successful has India’s spectrum policy been in enabling connectivity? Examine its limitations and the provisions under the new policy. Also suggest a way to use spectrum for ending the country’s digital divide.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  123. Given the looming climate emergency threatening the developing world, discuss the ways in which RBI can help regulate climate risk.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  124. What are the advantages and challenges associated with the introduction of Sovereign Green Bonds?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  125. What are the impediments to rural growth in India? Suggest some solutions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  126. What is the significance of the government’s recent push to facilitate international trade in Rupee, as opposed to the Dollar? What more needs to be done to conserve forex reserves?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  127. Comment on the situation of the informal sector in India. What are the challenges faced by them? Enumerate the government's initiatives to benefit this sector.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  128. Examine the case for liberalizing the tax regime for expatriates. How would it help with India’s goal of becoming a global financial hub?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  129. In light of the upcoming Global Mining Summit in Kolkata, comment on the state of mining sector regulation in India. Is deregulation the way ahead?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  130. Disclaimer: These questions have been written and answered by GKToday team over the period of time; and have included some previous years questions also. While every effort was made to ensure that these questions as well as their answers remain relevent and correct, it is possible, that some facts or context in some questions might have changed over time. GKToday does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by such change of facts or context in the questions and answers of this E-book.

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