Conservation Environmental Pollution Degradation


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is a dynamic E-Book comprising the below UPSC Mains Model Questions as well as their answers written by GKToday team. The PDF E-Book can be instantly downloaded after payment. No Hadcopy is provided.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Environmental impact assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before project is cleared by the government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at Pitheads.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. There are several flaws in the wildlife conservation approach based on the premise of creating national parks, tiger reserves, wildlife sanctuaries etc. managed by the state. Discuss giving arguments.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. What do you understand by the so called "Intended Nationally Determined Contributions"? Discuss their importance and analyze the India's stand on INDCs in recent times.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4. Discuss the journey of Sikkim towards becoming India's first fully organic state. Do you think that Sikkim model can be emulated by the other states in country? Elucidate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5. In various parts of India, one or the other animal species are used as part of either tradition or for entertainment purpose. In this context, critically examine the issues arising out of cruelty against animals.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6. Paris Agreement is toothless and has no mechanisms to enforce actions, and therefore will have little impact. Discuss critically.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7. While differentiating between Area strip mining and Contour mining with respect to coal extraction, discuss which of them is more dangerous to environment and why.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8. The growing focus on climate change policy in India is not matched by an equivalent level of attention to environment related institutional structure. Critically examine the key features and issues around Institutional framework for Climate Change Policy in India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9. What do you understand by "Climate Budgeting"? What are its advantages and status in India? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10. Elucidate the meaning of Ecological Sensitive Area (ESA) and Eco-sensitive Zones (ESZs) while bringing out the objectives of their demarcation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11. Make an assessment of five years of National Green Tribunal performance putting major decisions and cases in light? Also comment on the apparent conflicts between NGT's green activism and development agenda of successive governments.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12. The law should incorporate pollute and Pay" principle imposing heavy fines on violaters Instead of ruthlessly closing the polluting units." Discuss critically.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13. Elucidate the major threats faced by river ecosystems in India while highlighting the link between deforestation in catchment areas and its harms to rivers.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14. Enumerate the eight goals adopted under Nationally Determined Contributions. What role can be played by households and private sector in particular in realizing these goals? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  15. No city can be a smart city without a solid waste management plan. Critically analyze why the waste management policies are a failure. Also, suggest solutions for India's garbage problem.|
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16. While outlining its contours, critically examine the recently unveiled new regional plan to curb human-elephant conflict in eastern and central India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17. Right to clean air is part of right to health. Does the right to clean air entail regulations on burning fire crackers on Diwali? Discuss and argue if the recent SC verdict on firecrackers is a breach of freedom of religious practices.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18. Differentiate between Eco-centrism, Biocentrism and Bio conservativism while enumerating key ethical issues around them.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19. Poaching is one of the major issues in the protection of wild animals. Discuss how can real-time monitoring of animals help in tackling poaching as well reduce instances of man-animal conflict.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20. The burning of crop residue is one of the major reason behind the sharp deterioration in air quality in north India. Suggest measure to prevent such instances.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21. Compost from biodegradable can be a perfect solution for myriad no of issues related to waste management. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22. What are Bio-inspired plastics? How are they manufactured? Discuss their current and potential applications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23. Climate change and over exploitation of water resources have put pressure on rivers. Discuss what remedial measures should be taken to save rivers.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24. Harmful pesticides are one of the major reasons behind farmer's deaths. Critically discuss the provisions of Pesticide Management Bill in this context.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25. "The subjective definition of "wise use" in the Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2017 does not seem to make any change in our treatment of wetlands as waste lands." Discuss critically.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  26. The manner in which the Supreme Court has dealt with the issue {of fire-crackers on Diwali} raises the concern of tyranny of the un-elected. Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  27. Critically discuss the potential implications of recent amendment of the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification, 2011 towards mining for atomic minerals in coastal India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  28. In spite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development. Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  29. How does the Cryosphere affect global climate?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  30. Nor many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming a reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impacts on environment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31. Climate change is a global problem. How India will be affected by Climate Change? How Himalayan and coastal states in India will be affected by Climate Change?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32. What is the GI tag controversy over Rasgulla / Rosogulla between West Bengal and Odisha?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  33. What is Bio-medical Waste? Discuss the salient features of New Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules. What are the major constraints being faced by various state governments in implementation of the rules?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  34. The Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project (SSCP), ever since it was mooted in 2004, it has been a target of criticism from environmental advocates as well as religious enthusiasts. Are there any scientific reasons behind its opposition? Critically analyze.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  35. How the unorganised, unscientific fishing such as (gill net fishing) pose danger to aquatic fauna? Discuss taking example of Gangetic dolphins.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36. Discuss the objectives and major achievements of TRAFFIC (the wildlife trade monitoring network) over last few years.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37. Discuss the salient features of National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) by government.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  38. Critically evaluate the outcomes of Bonn Climate Change Conference (COP23), outlining the challenges in its effective implementation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39. Elucidate meteorological factors that influence urban outdoor air pollution? Throw light on some of the technological and non-technological solution to urban outdoor pollution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40. What are the advantages of methanol-based hybrid vehicles over lithium-ion batteries based electric vehicles. Elucidate the challenges faced in using methanol as a fuel in India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  41. Critically examine the government's decision to leapfrog from Bharat Stage (BS)-IV into Bharat Stage (BS)-VI fuel norms. (15 Marks)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  42. To what extent, the symbiotic relation between relatively isolated indigenous people and their environment has been affected due to climate change? Analyze citing reasons with suitable examples.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  43. Despite proper implementation to providing access to clean cooking fuel, the Ujjwala Yojana seems to have hit a roadblock on question of affordability. Examine this issue while making an assessment of feasibility of further expansion of this programme.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  44. How the urban waste contributes to global warming? Discuss how the efficient management of urban solid waste can reduce the GHG accumulation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  45. The wildlife conservation efforts of the government have helped in increasing the population of the endangered fauna, yet they have failed in addressing the habitat loss. Discuss the issues arising out of this anomaly.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46. What is Conversation Assured Tiger Standards (CA|TS)? What are its objectives? What are the findings of the recent Survey?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  47. What are the objectives, features and significance of the recently announced GOBAR-Dhan initiative?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  48. What is the current status of conservation of Asiatic Lion?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  49. What are the findings of the census conducted in the East Godavari River Estuarine Ecosystem (EGREE) region to record the presence of uncommon species?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  50. How the Energy Management Centre (EMC) of Kerala has achieved a status of energy positive campus?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  51. What are the recommendations of the Niti Aayog task force on Biomass management?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  52. How the emission trading scheme can aid India in curbing the emissions?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  53. Discuss the major policy loopholes in effective Urban Solid Waste Management in India. Suggest measures to address these loopholes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  54. What are the key findings of the special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  55. Dangers of untreated sludge to Ganga
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  56. What are recent CSIR attempts to develop Green Crackers?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  57. How the local bodies can play crucial role in dealing with the construction and demolition (C&D) wastes?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  58. What are major differences between the Bharat stage IV and Bharat stage VI? What would be possible impacts of SC verdict on upgrading to BSVI norms?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  59. Why most measures taken to tackle pollution (in NCR) are episodic rather than strategic responses?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  60. How the community participation has aided in reviving the lost glory of Manas National Park?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  61. What are the major findings of the WHO report on air pollution and child health?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62. Why most Indian cities are failing to tackle Air Pollution?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  63. Why Mekedatu dam project is being opposed by Tamil Nadu?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  64. What are the expectations of India from COP-24?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65. What are the steps taken by India to counter climate change?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  66. What do you know about White Throated Rails and Crested ibises? Explain in detail with their present status.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  67. While enumerating main characteristics of CFC-11, explain the current issues and controversies around it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  68. What are coral reefs? What is their significance? Explain in detail the threats faced by them.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  69. There is an urgent need to protect forest rights in India right now. Enumerate some of the steps that should be taken to protect Forest rights.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  70. What is a heat wave? Enumerate the ill effects of a heat wave on living things.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  71. Indian fertilizer industry is growing day by day. Enumerate the environmental concerns related with the growth of this sector in India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  72. What are the key highlights of the State of India�s Environment 2019? Discuss the concerns raised and measures required to be done.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73. What is the significance of Sunderban Wetlands of India?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74. What is the cause of the increase in the frequency of wildfires at the Bandipur Reserve?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  75. A proposal has been made to establish a permanent research center for Olive Ridley Turtle on the Odisha coast. Discuss the threats to the species in India and ways to conserve.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  76. What are your views about the National Clean Air Programme?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  77. How will the Golden Langur species benefit from the MGNREGA scheme?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78. There is no Plan B because we do not have a Planet B. Explain the statement in the context of recent agreement of G20 Members to tackle ocean plastic waste.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79. Over-supply of nutrients can cause a condition of hypoxia in water bodies. Discuss the harmful effects of such a condition and ways to avoid it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80. The water crisis in Tamil Nadu shows that there is a lot to learn about rainwater harvesting from our ancestors. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81. UN Climate Change meet could provide industry a roadmap for low carbon growth. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82. The government of India had made an election promise that it will ensure speed and effectiveness for issuing environmental clearances. Why do you think that project nods for such green belts need more scrutiny?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  83. Punjab is faced with a sharp decline in the groundwater. What in your opinion can prevent the state from further depletion of the precious resource which has already become a source of concern for the country?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  84. What are mangroves and in what way are they useful to us?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  85. Discuss the nature and causes of the UTI crisis with particular reference to US-64. How does this UTI fiasco affect the investment climate in India?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  86. Discuss the significance of Kyoto Protocol. Why is U.S.A. not signing it?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  87. What is vermicomposting? Discuss its importance in the Indian context.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  88. What does the Montreal Protocol deal with? Discuss its role in protecting Earth’s environment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  89. What are the findings of the report United in Science?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  90. Why there is a need of awareness campaigns to bring tangible changes in fight against climate change and building sustainable agriculture?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  91. What is Agroecology? Is Agroecology facing threats from the powerful elite lobby?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  92. What are the findings of the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  93. Why people of Wayanad are protesting closure of Kerala-Karnataka highway through Bandipur Tiger Reserve?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  94. How the Graded Response Action Plan responds to tackle the pollution emergencies?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  95. Waste to Wealth strategy is what will help in dealing with plastic waste efficiently. Discuss some of innovations for recycling plastics.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  96. How the Paani Bachao, Paise Kamao of Punjab checks depletion of underground water?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  97. What are Green Crackers? How they can contribute in reducing pollution levels?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  98. What is ozone hole? How the world has been successful in reducing the size of ozone hole?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  99. Grasslands play an important role in helping the big cats survive in their natural habitat and they are also indirectly dependent upon it. Elaborate in the light of importance of grasslands.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  100. Can Green energy technology, solar, wind and energy storage, save the planet and reverse the tide of climate change?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  101. The ‘New Delhi Declaration’ adopted at the 14th CoP asserts that land degradation is largely responsible for climate change or global warming. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  102. What is the link between mortality and pollution ? Comment on whether evidence provides a relation between the two.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  103. With solar and wind now being the cheapest sources of electricity, India needs to take charge and join industrialised nations in becoming net carbon neutral. Elaborate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  104. Climate change is not just an environment issue, it is a human and urban issue that will dramatically affect everyone. In this context, comment on the impact on Mumbai.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  105. What is an E-plane ? Can its introduction make commercial air travel low-cost and environmentally friendly?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  106. Why India needs a Project Dolphin?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  107. Checking on Noise Pollution in India
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  108. KUSUM scheme and water efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  109. Coastal Regulation & Developmental Activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  110. Failure of CoP25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  111. Harnessing Natural Gas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  112. Climate Change & EU's Plan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  113. Degradation of the Amazon Basin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  114. Water Scarcity & Atal Bhujal Yojana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  115. Cold across North India and Climate Change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  116. Water crisis in India & what India can learn from other countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  117. India Tests Swedish Technology To Effectively Replace Stubble Burning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  118. NITI Aayog Comes Out With Composite Water Management Index
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  119. Global Climate Risk Index 2020 Published
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  120. The IUCN Red List Is Getting Longer Each Year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  121. Critically examine the impact of COVID-19 towards the decline in global carbon dioxide emissions. Does it offer any strategies to control emissions in post COVID-19 era? Opine.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  122. Disclaimer: These questions have been written and answered by GKToday team over the period of time; and have included some previous years questions also. While every effort was made to ensure that these questions as well as their answers remain relevent and correct, it is possible, that some facts or context in some questions might have changed over time. GKToday does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by such change of facts or context in the questions and answers of this E-book.

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