Under which ministry come the scientific programmes of India in Antarctica?
The Indian Antarctic Program comes under the control of the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. This is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional program initiated in 1981 with the first Indian expedition to Antarctica which was led by S.Z. Qasim. India signed the Antarctic Treaty on September 12, 1983. India constructed its first research base Dakshin Gangotri Antarctic research base in 1983. It was followed by Maitri base from 1990.