Sarvadeshik Hindu Sabha

To counter the challenge from the Muslim League, founded in 1906, the politically conscious Hindus founded the Punjab Hindu Conference in 1909. In 1915, at its annual meeting, this conference renamed itself the Sarvadeshik Hindu Sabha, and in 1921, the Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha. By the mid-1930s, the Mahasabha, under the leadership of V.D. Savarkar, began to expound a Hindu nationalism opposed both to the secular nationalism of the Indian National Congress and the communal nationalism of the Muslim League.