Credit Control: Quantitative Measures v/s Qualitative Measures RBI
Credit control is most important function of Reserve Bank of India. Credit control in the economy is required for the smooth functioning of the economy. By using credit control methods RBI tries to maintain monetary stability. There are two types of methods:
- Quantitative control to regulates the volume of total credit.
- Qualitative Control to regulates the flow of credit
Here is a brief description of the quantitative and qualitative measures of credit control used by RBI.
The quantitative measures of credit control are as follows:
Bank Rate Policy
The bank rate is the Official interest rate at which RBI rediscounts the approved bills held by commercial banks. For controlling the credit, inflation and money supply, RBI will increase the Bank Rate.
Open Market Operations
Open Market Operations refer to direct sales and purchase of securities and bills in the open market by Reserve bank of India. The aim is to control volume of credit.
Cash Reserve Ratio
Cash reserve ratio refers to that portion of total deposits in commercial Bank which it has to keep with RBI as cash reserves.
Statutory Liquidity Ratio
SLR refers to that portion of deposits with the banks which it has to keep with itself as liquid assets(Gold, approved govt. securities etc.) If RBI wishes to control credit and discourage credit it would increase CRR & SLR.
Qualitative measures are used by the RBI for selective purposes. Some of them are
This refers to difference between the securities offered and amount borrowed by the banks.
Consumer Credit Regulation
This refers to issuing rules regarding down payments and maximum maturities of instalment credit for purchase of goods.
RBI issues oral, written statements, appeals, guidelines, warnings etc. to the banks.
Rationing of credit
The RBI controls the Credit granted / allocated by commercial banks.
Psychological means and informal means of selective credit control.
This step is taken by the RBI against banks that don’t fulfil conditions and requirements. RBI may refuse to rediscount their papers or may give excess credits or charge a penal rate of interest over and above the Bank rate, for credit demanded beyond a limit.