Palaeolithic Sites in India : A Fact Sheet
Here are some important facts about the Palaeolithic sites in India in different regions.
- The Kashmir Valley is surrounded by Pir Panjal Hills on the South- West and the Himalayas on the north-east. A hand axe was discovered near Pahalgam in Kashmir on the River Lidder.
- Palaeolithic tools are not found in large number in Kashmir because Kashmir was intensely cold during the glacial times.
Potwar Region (Pakistan)
- The Potwar region (modern West Punjab & Pakistan) lies between Pir Panjal and the Salt Range. This area was experiencing tectonic movement and rivers Indus and Sohan originated in this process.
- Sohan valley: The Sohan Valley yielded hand axes and choppers and the important sites which have yielded such tools are Adial, Balwal and Chauntra.
- The banks of rivers Beas.
- Rangange & Sirsa : Rangange and Sirsa have also yielded Palaeolithic tools.
- Luni (Rajasthan): The Luni river (Rajasthan) complex has many palaeolithic sites. The river Luni has its source in the Aravalis.
- Chittorgarh (Gambhirs basin), Kota (Chambal basin), and Negarai (Berach basin) have yielded Palaeolithic tools.
- Mewar : The Wagaon and Kadamali rivers in Mewar are rich in Middle Palaeolithic sites. A variety of scrapers. borers and points have been discovered in this area.
- The rivers Sabarmati, Mahi and their tributaries (Gujarat) have yielded many Palaeolithic artifacts. Sabarmati rises in the Aravalis and flows into the Gulf of Cambay.
- Middle Palaeolithic artifacts have been reported from Bhandarpur near Orsang Valley. The river Bhader in Saurashtra is rich in Palaeolithic assemblage and hand axes, cleavers. Chopping tools, points, borers and scrapers have been reported from its banks.
- The Kutch area has produced many Palaeolithic tools like cleavers, Hand axes and choppers.
- The Narbada River rises in the Maikal range and flows into the Gulf of Cambay. The Narbada terraces are rich in Palaeolithic sites. Many handaxes and cleavers have been reported.
- Bhimbetka (near Bhopal) located in the Vindhyan range is a site in which tools representing the Acheulian tradition were replaced at a later stage by the Middle Palaeolithic Culture.
Godavari, Tapti & Krishna River Regions
- The rivers-Tapti, Godavari, Bhima and Krishna have yielded a large number of Palaeolithic sites.
- The distribution of Palaeolithic sites is linked up with ecological variation like erosional feature, nature of soils, etc.
- The Tapti trough has deep regur (black soil), and the rest of the area is covered mostly by medium regur.
- From Chirki near Nevasa in Maharashtra Palaeolithic tools like handaxes, chopper, cleavers, scrapers and borers have been reported.
- The ither important Palaeolithic sites are Koregaon, Chandoli and Shikarpur in Maharashtra.
- River Raro (Singhbhum, Bihar) is rich in Palaeolithic tools like handaxes, bifacial chopping tools and flakes.
- From Singhbum many Palaeolithic sites have been reported and the main artefacts are handaxes and choppers.
- Palaeolithic tools have also been reported from the valleys of the Damodar and the Suvarnarekha.
- The Baitarani, Brahmani and Mahanadi rivers form the deltaic region of Orissa and some palaeolithic tools have been found in this area.
- The Buharbalang Valley ‘in Mayurbhang in Orissa has many Early and Middle Palaeolithic tools like handaxes, scrapers, points, flakes, etc.
- From Malprabha, Ghatprabha and the amuents of the Krishna a number of Palaeolithic sites have been reported.
- In Ghatprabha basin in Karnataka Acheulian handaxes have been found in large numbers. Anagawadi and Bagalkot are two most important sites on the Ghatprabha where both Early and Middle Palaeolithic tools have been found.
- The rivers Palar, Penniyar and Kaveri in Tamil Nadu are rich in Palaeolithic tools.
- Attirampakkam and Gudiyam (in Tamil Nadu) have yielded both Early and Middle Palaeolithic artifacts like handaxes: flakes, blades, scrapers, etc.