National Tree of India is banyan tree which is focal point of a village life.
Part IX and IXA:
73rd and 74th amendment act inserted Part IX which related to Panchayat and Part IX A which is related to municipalities in the Indian Constitution
Article 243 (D) :
Cabinet, in December 2009 decided to bring a bill to amend Article 243(D) of the Constitution to enhance reservation for women in Panchayat at all tiers from the current one-third to at least 50%. Article 243D provides that all Panchayat seats would be reserved for SC and ST in proportion of their population. Moreover 1/3rd of the total number of seats would be reserved for women belonging to SC & ST respectively.
Origin of panchayats:
The provision of Panchayat is provides by Article 40 of the constitution (under directive principles of state policy) which says that The State shall take steps to organize village Panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government. The 73rd amendment act gives PRI a constitutional status.
3 tier system:
The Panchayati raj act 1992 provides a 3 tier system of panchayats at village, intermediary and district level.
First Official Language Commission:
The first Official language commission was appointed in 1955 with Sri BG Kher as its chairman.
Article 15(4) says that the government can make special provisions for SCs and STs in the name of “Positive Discrimination”
Safeguarding Interests of SC & ST
Article 330 & 342 make special provisions for safeguarding the interest of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, Anglo Indian and backward classed.
Registration of Political Parties:
Section 28A of the representation of the people act 1951 provides for registration of political parties by Election commission.
Article 326 provides the adult suffrage. It says that election shall be held on the basis of adult suffrage. Every person who is a citizen of India and who is not less than 18 years of age shall be eligible as a voter.
Article 75(3) says that council of ministers in collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. This means if a resolution is defeated the entire ministry collapses.
Article 301 of the constitution of India declared that trade, commerce and intercourse though out the territory of India shall be free. The guarantee under this article cannot be taken away by executive action.
Prorogation merely ends a session. A prorogation does not end the life of an house.
The Union List consists of 97 subjects, state list 66 subjects and concurrent list 47 subjects. In case of a conflict between central & state law on the concurrent subject, central law will prevail. Under article 253, parliament can make laws even on state list to comply with the international agreements to which India is a party. The state can not oppose such a move of the centre.
Centre’s Indirect Control over states:
Article 155 says that Governor of state is appointed by the President. However Governor is not responsible to the state legislature. This makes, centre indirectly enjoy control of state through appointment of Governor.
Why Union of states:
States have no right to secede and for this purpose the term “Union of states” is used.
Idea in Preamble:
The idea of equality mentioned in the Preamble is elaborated in article 14 & 18.