Introduction & Branches of Zoology

Biology includes three major branches-Botany, Zoology and Microbiology. Botany is the study of plants. Theophrastus (370-287 B.C.) is known as the father of Botany. Zoology is the study of animals. Aristotle is known as the father of zoology. Microbiology deals with different aspects of micro-organisms. Antony van Leeuwenhoek is known as the Father of Microbiology.


There are several branches of Zoology. For example Taxonomy (taxis – arrangement; nomos – law) science of identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms. Identification refers to finding the correct place of an organism in a system of classification with the help of keys. Nomemenclature (nomen= name, clature = call) is the science providing distinct name to an organism. Classification of the organisms is the arrangement of the organisms into groups basing on their affinities.


Morphology (morphos-form, logos-study) refers to the study of external form, size, shape, colour, structure and relative position of various organs. Morphology can be external morphology or internal morphology. Internal morphology includes Anatomy, Histology and Cytology. Anatomy (ana = up. Tome = cutting) is the basic study of internal structure of an organism which can be observed with naked aye. Histology (histos = tissue, logos- study) is the study of tissues. The study of tissues is done after several processes such as fixing, dehydrating, embedding, sectioning and staining. Cytology is the study of the cells. Cell biology is the branch science that deals with the study of the cell as a fundamental unit of living organisms.

Other Branches of Biology

Molecular biology is the study of nature of bio-molecules and their interaction. Physiology is the study of different types of functions and processes. Embryology is study of events that lead to fertilization, growth, division, and differentiation of zygote into an embryo. Ecology : (eStudy of living organisms in relation to other organisms and their environment. Genetics is the study of inheritance of characters from one generation to the next generation. It includes heredity and variations. Evolution is the study of origin of life and the study of continuous genetic adaptations of organism to the environment. Palaeontology is the study of fossils or the remains or organisms of past geological age. This includes palaeobotany and palaeozoology. Palaeobotany refers to the study of fossil plants. Palaezoloogy refers to the study of fossil animals. Biogeography is the study of distribution of organism in various parts of earth. In includes phytogeography and zoogeography. Phytogeography is the study of distribution of plants. Zoogeography is the study of distribution of animals. Exobiology is the study of possibility of living beings in other planets. Endocrinology is the study of endocrine glands i.e. the ductless glands in human body. Parasitology is the study of parasites.

Specific Branches of Zoology

Branch Study Area
Acarology Study of tick and mites
Actinobiology / Radiobiology Study of effects of radiations on living organisms
AerobiologyStudy of flying organisms
Andrology Study of male reproductive organs
Angiology Study of blood vessels
Anthropology Study of human races
Apiculture Rearing of honey bees
Apiology Study of honey bees
Aquaculture Culturing of aquatic organisms
Araneology Study of spiders
Arthrology Study of joints
Bacteriology Study of bacteria
Batracology Study of rays and skates
Biochemistry Study of chemistry of living organisms
BioclimatologyStudy of effect of climate on distribution of organisms
BiodynamicsBiology dealing with energetics of organisms
BiometryApplicaitn of mathematics in living organisms
BiophysicsStudy of physical principles of living organisms
BiostatisticsApplication of statics in living organisms
Carcinology Study of crustaceans
Cardiology Study of heart
Chiropterology Study of bats
Chondrology Study of cartilage
Cnidology Study of cnidarians
ConchologyStudy of molluscan
Craniology Study of cranium
Cryobiology Study of life at low temperature
Ctetology Study of acquired characters of plants and animals
Demography Study of populations
Dermatology Study of skin
Entomology Study of insects
Epidemiology Study of epidemic diseases
Ethology Study of animal behaviours
Etiology Study of origin of disease
Eugenics Study of improvement of human races by the application of genetic laws
Euphenics / Medical engineering Study of improvement of human races by altering protein synthesis in the cell
Euthenics Study of improvement of human race by providing better conditions
Exobiology Study of life in the other plants
Gerentology Study of aging in man
Gnatobiology Study of germ free living organisms
Gynaecology Study of female reproductive system
Haematology Study of blood
Heiminthology Study of Helminths
Herpetology Study of frogs
Ichnology Study of foot prints
Ichthyology study of molluscan shells
Immunology Study of immune systems in the body and antigen-antibody reactions
Laryngology Study of larynx
Lepidopterology Study of butterflies
Limnology Study of life in fresh water bodies
Malcology Study of molluscs
Mammology Study of mammals
Mastology Study of breasts
Microbiology Study of micro-organism (viruses and bacteria)
Myrmecology Study of ants
Neonatology Study of newly born organisms
Neontology Study of recently formed organisms
Nephrology Study of nephrons
Nidology Study of bird nests
Odontology Study of teeth and gums
Onchology Study of cancer
Ontogeny Study of history of an individual
Ophilogy study of snakes
Ophthalmology Study of eyes
Organology Study of organs
Ornithology study of birds
Osteology Study of bones
Otology Study of ear
Parazoology Study of sponges
PedologyStudy of soil
Phenology Study of seasonal behaviours flowering in plants, migrations in animals
Phrenology Study of brain and its working
PhylogenyStudy of racial history
Pisciculture Culturing of fishes
Pleurology Study of lungs
Protozoology Study proto-zoans
Psychology Study of human mind
Renology Study of kidneys
Rhinology Study of nose
Sarcology or myology Study of muscles
Saurology study of lizars
Sericulture Rearing of silk worms
Serology Study of serum
SonologyStudy of wounds
Splanchnology Study of visceral organs
Syndesmology Study of joints and ligaments
Tectology Study of structural organisation of body
Teleology Study of interpretations of structures in terms of utility and purpose
Teratology Study of abnormal
Torpedology Study of fishes
Traumatology Embryos (terats)
Trichology Study of hair
Urology Study of excretory system
Veterinary science Study of hearing
Virology Study of viruses
Wormiculture / vermiculture Rearing of worms.
Zymology / Enzymology Study of domestic animals