Types of Motions in Indian Parliament
A motion refers to a formal proposal asking the house to take some action. In Parliament, motion is required to be made for any discussion with the permission of presiding officer. The motion are accepted or rejected on the basis of opinions and discussions in the house among members. There are three kinds of motions in parliament viz. substantive motion, substitute motion and subsidiary motion. Substantive motion is most dominating from of them.
Closure is one of the means by which a debate may be brought to an end by a majority decision of the House, even though all Members wishing to speak have not done so.
Closure versus Guillotine
Guillotine refers to putting by the Speaker of outstanding question or questions relating to the business in hand on expiry of the time allotted for its discussion. While closure is preceded by a motion, guillotine is not preceded by any motion. On the last of the allotted days at the appointed time, the Speaker puts every question necessary to dispose of all the outstanding matters in connection with the demands for grants. During budget, guillotine concludes the discussion on demands for grants.
A privilege motion is moved against breach of parliamentary privileges. Parliamentary privileges are certain rights and immunities enjoyed by MPs, MLAs and MLCs, individually and collectively, so that they can effectively discharge their functions. When any of these rights and immunities is disregarded, the offence is called a breach of privilege and is punishable under law of Parliament or the state legislature. Each House also claims the right to punish as contempt actions which, while not breach of any specific privilege, are offences against its authority and dignity.
Calling attention is a type of motion introduced by a member to call the attention of a minister to a matter of urgent public importance. The minister is expected to make authoritative statement from him on that matter. It can be introduced in any house of the parliament.
Motion of Thanks
Motion of thanks is moved and voted in both houses parliament after the inaugural speech of the president at the beginning of first session of new Lok Sabha or first session of New Year. The speech of president is generally drafted by ruling party and its contents outline the vision of the central government. The discussion on motion of thanks generally allows the opposition to critically discuss the government’s vision, scope and policies. This motion must be passed in both of the houses. A failure to get motion of thanks passed (which may happen rarely) amounts to defeat of government and leads to collapse of government.
Dilatory motions refer to the motions that seek adjournment / delay / retard of the debate on Bills, motions or resolutions etc.