Campaigns of Alauddin Khalji
Seize of Ranthambore:
After coming out of his “Fool’s Paradise” he found out the just Ranthambore was enough to make his lose all his energy. One of the rebels of the Sultan , named Muhammad Shah was given shelter by Raja Hammir of Ranthambore. The fort was besieged by the Sultan’s army in 1299 and returned in 1301 exhausted. Only a conspiracy could help him to capture the fort of Ranthambore that too with the help of a Rajput traitor Ranmal. Hammir Dev as well as Muhammad shah was killed and Ranthambore was given to Ulugh Khan. Sultan Returned to Delhi.
Seize of Chittor
Rawal Rattan Singh was 42nd ruler of Mewar. His wife Rani Padmini was an eternal beauty and Alauddin came to know about her. Besides, to make a stronghold on Gujarat and Deccan, Chittor was essential to be won by Alauddin. Chittor was seized for 8 months, and finally came under the khaljis.
Padmani and other women of the Fort performed Jauhar which is huge pyre was lit and followed by their queen Padmini, all the women of Chittor jumped into the flames and deceived the lustful enemy waiting outside.
- Padmavat of Malik Muhammad Jayasi is a poem about the beauty and Jauhar of Padmani.
- When Khalji attacked Ranthambore, Chittor, Malwa and other places, Amir Khusro remained with the king in order to write chronicles.
- Khazain-ul-Futooh (The Treasures of Victories) is one of Amir Khusrau’s controversial books in which the war of Chittorgarh has been mentioned.
- Gora and Badal were two warriors who fought from the side of Rawal Ratan Singh.
- Khijra Khan, son of Alauddin Khalji was made governor of Chittor and its name was changed to Khijrabad.
In 1303, Chittor was besieged by the marauding army of Alauddin Khilji, who had coveted Padmani, Rani of Chittor. The siege was followed by “Jauhar” wherein Rani Padmani, consort of Rawal Ratan Singh, led the ladies of the fort into death by self-immolation, “to find security from dishonor in the devouring element” as says James Tod. The next morning, the men folk of Chittor rode out to face certain death on the field of honor.
Meanwhile Daughter of Raja Karndev, the ruler of Gujarat was taken to Delhi and was married to Khijra Khan, son of Alauddin Khalji.
Conquests in Deccan
After reducing the two Hindu Fortresses of Ranthambore (1201) and Chittor (1203), Alauddin was now to turn against the Deccan.
He sent an army under Malik Kafur , a handsome castrato (male castrated before puberty) from Gujarat who was Hindu by birth and converted to Islam, fascinated the Sultan and allegedly had homosexual relations with him. Alauddin had so much faith on Malik Kafur that he became the most important person after Sultan in due course of time.
He was sent in 1308 to recover Devagiri which was won by Sultan 15 years ago and the Raja had refused to pay tributes. The Raja was captured and taken as prisoners. Malik brought the Raja and his son to Delhi. The Sultan treated them with all honor, gave him a royal canopy and a title of “Rai Rayan” (King of Kings) and returned him to Devagiri to rule as a vassal of the Delhi Sultanate.
In the following years Malik Kafur took his troops to Warangal and was able to get the famous (infamous rather) Kohinoor diamond from the King Prataprudradev of the Kakatiya dynasty. The next campaign was against Veera Ballala III , the great Hoyasala , who was able to repulse the armies of Delhi Sultanate, but Kafur returned with a great Booty.