Afonso de Albuquerque
- Afonso de Albuquerque was the second governor of the Portuguese India and is known as founder of Portuguese colonial empire in India.
We all know that first part of India that was colonized by the Europeans was Goa. It was eventually the last part of India to be liberated from the Europeans.
Afonso de Albuquerque attacked Goa in 1510. The ruler of Goa was the Sultan of Bijapur Ismail Adil Shah. Adil Shah was initially able to repeal him but three months later, Afonso de Albuquerque returned and there was a fierce battle in the streets of Goa, claiming the lives of the thousands of Muslim defenders.
- Thus Afonso de Albuquerque was able to take possession of Goa in December 1510. The battle was known as Battle of Goa (1510)
- Afonso de Albuquerque is known to have started the first Portuguese Mint in the east. He was able to issue the Gold, Silver and bronze coins which were based upon the local designs but were engraved with the badge of the Portuguese kings.
- After Goa, more mints were established at Malacca (Today a city of Malaysia).
Afonso de Albuquerque made Goa is base and from here he conquered Malacca in 1511 and Hormuz in 1515.
- Albuquerque was the first Portuguese who was able to suppress the Arab merchandise in Malaysia by winning Malacca in 1511.
After becoming undisputed King of Goa, he concluded a peace treaty with Zamorin and received embassies from other Indians.
- At that time, there was superstition of the Portuguese naval officers not to take their wives to the ships. The Portuguese, when established themselves in Goa, started marrying the local ladies and thus from the times of Albuquerque, mixed marriages started in Goa, combining the culture of the east with west.
- Albuquerque is also known to have abolished the practice of Sati in Goa.
This wonderful second Governor of Portuguese India was able to conquest Ormuz in 1515, but when he returned after this conquest, he was informed that he has been superseded by Soares de Albergaria, his number 1 enemy at Portugal. He was not able to absorb this shock and died soon afterwards.