Explain why it took the Nationalists (Kuomintang) so long to establish their authority over China after the revolution of 1911.

The Kuomintang (KMT) is a major political party in Taiwan which is often referred to as the Chinese Nationalist Party. After the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, the KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen. Chiang Kai-shek was appointed to form the National Revolutionary Army. After the defeat in the civil war by the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong, the KMT returned to Taiwan.

The revolution

In October of 1911, the Qing Dynasty encountered a massive revolt, led by a group of revolutionaries of southern China. The revolution is also called the Xinhai Revolution. The incident ceased the era of the last imperial dynasty of China and flagged off the Republic of China.

Consequences

  • Cessation of a four thousand year monarchy and the foundation of the Republic of China.
  • Modernization of China under the light of socialism.
  • The transition of China towards imperialism.
  • Development of the culture and livelihoods of the people.
  • Election of Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president.

The reason behind the delay

On 1st January 1912 marked the first day of the Republic of China. The establishment of the authority over China took so long due to the following reasons

  • Many groups who participated in the 1911 revolution, demanded representation of their own flag as a national flag.
  • A massive outpouring of anti-Manchu sentiment was noticed through China after the revolution.
  • Yuan Shikai was attacked by insurgent groups.
  • The process of abdication of the imperial family took so long.
  • Riots broke out for the selection of the capital.

The Beiyang Government was not internationally recognized until 1928. That is why the period is also known as the Beiyang Period.

Question for UPSC Mains:
Explain why it took the Nationalists (Kuomintang) so long to establish their authority over China after the revolution of 1911.

Published: March 21, 2017 | Modified:September 11, 2020

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