Differentiate between Eco-centrism, Biocentrism and Bio conservativism while enumerating key ethical issues around them.

Eco-centrism believes in the importance of ecosystem as a whole and considers living and non-living components of ecosystems as equal. This philosophical assertion sees little importance in individuals. Eco-centrists are concerned only with how individuals influence ecosystems as a whole.
Biocentrism places more importance on living components of the environment. They do not consider chemical and geological elements to be as important as living beings. As per Biocentrists, all living things are equally important. For example, for them, a tree’s life is as precious as a human’s life. This view is in contrast to an anthropocentric view as per which life of humans are most precious.
Bioconservatism is a sceptical vision towards radical technological advances, specifically those which affect the human conditions. The adherents of Bioconservatism believe that technological trends in the society compromise human dignity; and therefore they oppose to technologies such as human genetics etc.
The main issues around these three schools are related to environment ethics. Some of these include:

  1. Should humans continue to clear cut forests for the sake of human consumption?
  2. Why should humans continue to propagate its species, and life itself?
  3. Should humans continue to make gasoline-powered vehicles?
  4. What environmental obligations do humans need to keep for future generations?
  5. Is it right for humans to knowingly cause the extinction of a species for the convenience of humanity?
  6. How should humans best use and conserve the space environment to secure and expand life?
Question for UPSC Mains:
Differentiate between Eco-centrism, Biocentrism and Bio conservativism while enumerating key ethical issues around them. {150 words, 10 marks}

Published: September 21, 2017 | Modified:June 27, 2019

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