Discuss various phases of Green revolution and their impacts on social economy of India.

The Green Revolution is the period when the Indian agriculture sector was transformed into an industrial system after the adoption of modern scientific methods and techniques like using high yielding variety seeds, modern agricultural equipment, upgraded irrigation facilities, high-quality pesticides, and fertilizers, etc.

Green revolution in India

M.S. Swaminathan was the man behind the revolution in India. The worldwide extension was carried out by Norman Borlaug. It strengthened agricultural research and technology that helped to increase agricultural productivity in the developing nations.


  • The first phase of the green revolution was started in the mid-1960 and ended in the mid-1970. In this time phase, the application of HYV seeds was limited to states like Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc. The HYV Seeds mainly benefited the wheat production.
  • The second phase of the Green revolution was started in 1970 and ended in 1980. The HYV seeds got a nationwide extension and most of the crops were benefited.


The Green Revolution in India was introduced in Punjab as a part of the development program issued by the international donor agencies and the Government of India. The socio-economic impact of the green revolution are

  • Production and Productivity were increased. Record output of 131 million tonnes was noticed in 1978.
  • Total area coverage under certain crops was increased and per unit growth also showed an increasing trend.
  • The employment generation in the agricultural sector was also increased.
  • The application of HYV seed was limited to certain states that is why other states missed the benefit of modern technology.
  • The benefit of the large farmers was higher than the small and marginal farmers.

Due to high yielding, the farmers realized the significance of the agricultural field.

Question for UPSC Mains:
Discuss various phases of Green revolution and their impacts on social economy of India.

Published: October 27, 2015 | Modified:September 8, 2020