Differentiate between Dryland Farming and Rainfed Farming. Discuss the relative importance of both for India agriculture.

ConstituentsDryland farmingRainfed farming
Rainfall (mm)< 750>750
MoistureShortageEnough / Sufficient
Growing regionsArid and Semiarid & up lands of sub humid & humid regions.Humid and slub humid regions.
Cropping systemSingle crop or Intercropping or double cropping.
intercropping
ConstraintsWind and water erosionWater erosion.
Importance of Rainfed: India ranks first among the countries that practice rain-fed agriculture both in terms of extent and value of production. Rain-fed agriculture supports nearly 40% of India’s estimated population of 1210 million in 2011. Cultivation of coarse cereals (91%), pulses (91%), oilseeds (80%) and cotton (65%) predominates in these rain-fed regions. In the rain-fed areas, farmers’ dependence on livestock, besides arable farming, as an alternative source of income is high. It is estimated that nearly two out of three heads of cattle population in India thrive in rain-fed regions. These data emphasize the crucial role played by rain-fed agriculture in India’s food security.
Importance of Dryland: Dryland areas has a significant contribution in pulses, oilseeds, coarse grain crops and cotton. Optimal use of dryland technologies for increased agricultural production can help to fill the demand supply gap in pulses and oilseeds production and improve the economic status of farmers .

Question for UPSC Mains:
Differentiate between Dryland Farming and Rainfed Farming. Discuss the relative importance of both for India agriculture.

Published: October 28, 2015 | Modified:October 15, 2020

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