Calcutta session 1906 and Resolution of Swaraj
The extremists wanted to extend the boycott to all over India and refuse cooperation so that task of administration becomes impossible. The main extremist leaders were Lala Lajpat Ray, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal. They were called Lal Bal Pal. They had become so popular that British got alarmed. The slogan was “Swaraj is my Birthright”
They wanted to disobey the unjust laws; they wanted to kick the loyalists out of the society. They wanted all that Gandhi would take up in future minus non-violence. This was the first phase of the passive resistance.
The moderates were moderates. They did not like these new techniques of struggle. They even thought of using the Boycott in only special circumstances.
The extremists were far more popular than the moderates. Before this session, the extremists would have taken over congress had they elected a leader among them. But it was not done. The moderates were politically intelligent. In 1906, the session at Calcutta was presided by Dada Bhai Naoroji. The moderates chose Dada Bhai Naoroji to preside the Congress. Dada Bhai Naoroji, the Grand Oldman of India was respected by the moderates and extremists alike. But, in this session, the congress was compelled by the extremists to adopt following resolutions which were accepted by the moderates with half heart. These were as follows:
- Resolution on Partition of Bengal
- Resolution of Self Government (Swaraj)
- Resolution on Swadeshi
- Resolution on Boycott.
Thus in Calcutta session of 1906, under the leadership of Dadabhai Naoroji, Congress adopted Swaraj as the Goal of Indian people. But here a bit of politics was played by the Moderates. They, by no means wanted to be tagged as radical. The toned down the resolution in a compromised state and made it “self government means that obtaining the self governing British Colonies“. Thus the whole meaning of Swaraj of the extremists was changed. The extremists were defeated in this politics and the difference became apparent. Congress was now bound to split.