"Naxalism is the outcome of a number of various factors political and economical in nature."Discuss Critically.

Naxalism is the outcome of a number of various factors political and economical in nature as discussed below:
Political Factors

  • Emergence of the naxal movement coincided with the formation of the first United Front Government in West Bengal (1967) with CPI (M) as its main constituent. The movement thus received increasing official support, attention and press coverage in those times.
  • The movement was influenced with the political ideology of Chinese Communist Party and Mao Zedong. The naxal commitment to Maoism remains as it was earlier. The Naxalbari movement began as an armed peasants uprising.
  • The most important political factor for rise of Naxalism is the inability of the legitimate political authority in India to provide avenues for structural uplift to the deprived sections of society in the affected states.
  • The Naxalites operate in a vacuum created by administrative and political institutions, espouse local demands, and take advantage of the discontent prevalent among the exploited sections of the population.

Economic Factors

  • Problem of poverty and economic inequality and underdevelopment in the naxal affected regions.
  • Encroachment of forest lands by and wealth controlled by contractor-politician nexus.
  • Entry of mining companies in Tribal lands and forests, posing threat to the livelihood of the tribals.
  • Indigenous tribal population deprived of their lands, uprooted from their traditional sourceof livelihood.
  • Globalization accused to have led many MNCs making inroads in tribal areas owing to their resource richness. The benefits of the resource exploitation are not passed on the tribals.
  • The tribal villages have no medical facilities, no schools, low literacy, and high poverty.
  • The Naxalite cadre base is formed of tribals, lower castes from India’s poorest communities, form the Naxals’ cadre base.


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