Explain the distribution of coal resources of India throwing light on the coal quality and its impact on India's economy.

About 99% of coal available in India is Gondwana coal, located in the region of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Telangana and Eastern Madhya Pradesh. The Gondwana coal is found under three geological units Raniganj formation, Barkar foundation and Karharbari formation. Tertiary coal accounts only for 1% production in India. Major coal fields in India are Ib-River coalfield, Talcher coalfield, North Godavari and South Godavari Coalfield, Wardha valley coalfields, Korba coalfields, Kamptee coalfields, Tatapani coalfields, Chirimiri coalfields, Singrauli coalfields, Jharia coalfields, damodar valley coalfields etc.
About 80 percent of coals available in India is butuminous type and non-coking in nature, high in Sulphur and Ash content. Due to this India needs to import Coking coal (low ash, sulfur and phosphorus content) from other countries. . This  increases India’s dependence for coal on foreign countries for steel industries. Indian coal is mainly used in thermal industries.


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