What are the advantages of offshore wind energy projects over onshore projects? What are the associated challenges?

Despite having a 7500 km long coastline and government’s push for renewable energy, offshore wind energy is still a relatively underdeveloped sector in India.  Offshore wind energy is generated by harvesting the power of wind at the sea rather than on land.


  • considerably less disputes related to land as the area for setting up of large projects is available.
  • The wind speeds are considerably higher at the sea than on land, which considerably affect the efficiency of electricity production.
  • The wind speed is relatively consistent on sea, whereas the required wind speed on land depends on season.
  • Scope for making larger capacity windmills.
  • Lesser transmission losses, as the offshore wind energy plants can be made near to coastal cities.
  • Reduced impact on the ecosystem.


  • Higher initial cost compared to onshore projects.
  • Identification of suitable sites.
  • Lack of a regulatory framework.
  • Higher energy tariffs.

The potential of offshore wind power is largely untapped in India. The national offshore wind energy policy Provides the roadmap for offshore wind energy. The challenges need to be addressed in order to meet renewable energy targets.


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