Write a short note on the Rasarnava and Dakarnava tradition of ancient India.

The early medieval period witnessed considerable development in the literature. However, the quality of the content in them was not that satisfying. It was basically of general imitative and reproductive character.

Rasarnava system

The Rasarnava is work on Tantra, which deals with metallic preparations and alchemy. It was written in between the 11th and 12th century, that is actually a description of a large number of equipment, crucibles, furnaces, etc, for processing of minerals and metals.

Dakarnava system

The Dakarnava is a Buddhist tantric work composed in Apabhramsha. The Sadhanamala, a Buddhist tantric work belongs to the twelfth century.


Several procedures were emancipated for making metals from maksika, Vimala being pyrites, and Sayaka bearing copper sulfate. The wonderful observation was made that all three red products were of the same kind. An arrangement of six metals i.e. gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, and lead in the order of increasing rate are found in Rasarnava which is of corrosion and mentioned high reactivity of sulfur with most of the metals.


Latest E-Books