Elaborate the four phases of the Adhunik kal or the Modern Period in Hindi literature.

The Adhunik kal or the Modern Period in Hindi literature begins in the midth of the 19th century. The Hindi prose evolved in this period. There was a proliferation of the use of Khariboli in poetry in place of Brajbhasha. This period is divided into four phases as follows:

  • Bharatendu Yuga or the Renaissance (1868-1893)
  • Dwivedi Yug (1893-1918)
  • Chhayavada Yug (1918-1937)
  • Contemporary Period (1937 onwards).

Bhartendu Yuga-Bharatendu Harishchandra (is known to have brought in a modern outlook in Hindi literature. He is described as “Father of Modern Hindi Literature”.
Dwivedi Yuga-Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi  is regarded as the architect of modern Hindi prose. He brought in the refined prose writing. Dwivedi Yuga is known for portrayel of various social, political and economic problems in Hindi Literature.
Chhayavad refers to the romantic upsurge in poetry, in which emphasis was laid on aesthetic and romantic subject matter instead of the formalism and didacticism.
Present phase-The important fiction writers of the contemporary period include S H Agyeya, Dharamvir Bharati, Rahi Masoom Raza etc.


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