Discuss the evolution of the Hindi Literature.

The history of Hindi poetry, extends over a period of almost one thousand years. Hindi verse literature as a whole can be divided into four yugas (kal) or stages-

  • Adikal (the Early Period)
  • Bhaktikal (the Devotional Period)
  • Ritikal (the Scholastic Period)
  • Adhunikkal (the Modern Period)

Adikal Literature of Hindi belongs to the period between 10th to 14th centuries. The poetry of this period either highlights certain religious ideologies or praises the heroic deeds of the Rajput rulers and warriors in the form of verse-narratives.
Bhakti Kal refers to the period between the 14th and the 17th century. This period saw the rise of the Bhakti Kavyas (devotional poetry). The Bhakti Kal poetry is divided into Nirguna and Saguna Schools depending upon the devotional attitude of the poets towards the Lord.
Ritikal of Hindi literature was between 17th to 19th century in which the Sanskrit rhetorical tradition was emulated on several aspects such as rasa, alankara and nayak-nayika bheda etc.
The Adhunik kal or the Modern Period in Hindi literature begins in the mid of the 19th century. The Hindi prose evolved in this period. There was a proliferation of the use of Khariboli in poetry in place of Brajbhasha. This period is divided into four phases as follows:

  • Bharatendu Yuga or the Renaissance (1868-1893)
  • Dwivedi Yug (1893-1918)
  • Chhayavada Yug (1918-1937)
  • Contemporary Period (1937 onwards).


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