Page-2 of UPSC Mains Model Questions - July, 2022

One of the greatest environmental challenges that the world is facing today is desertification and it is getting worse because of climate change. Discuss.

India hosted 14th COP to UN Convention on Desertification which brought to light concerns & challenges around desertification. Nearly 30% of India’s land is undergoing desertification. Desertification: An environmental challenge: Loss of biodiversity – biodiversity is always supported by land, e.g. Himalayan biodiversity is eroding due to desertification. Reduced ground water recharge due to tree ..

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How land banks can encourage land use efficiency and create economic growth? Discuss in light of increasing prominence of land banks in India. Also, examine the concerns associated with it.

Land banks refer to ready-to-use land parcels with pre-clearances & regulatory approvals. DIPAM (Department of Investment and Public Asset Management) recently finalized proposals for a land bank company to streamline land bank use. Benefits of Land Banks: Better land use efficiency: Unused government land can be brought to use. 50% of land in SEZs is ..

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Right marketing strategies and an efficient supply chain are imperative to make India a global food supply leader. Elucidate.

Despite being among countries with largest area under cultivation, India’s contribution to global agriculture exports is a meagre 2 to 3%. Opportunities for India: Second largest rice and wheat production. Largest Dairy producer in world. Second largest fisheries sector in world. Second largest Horticulture production in world. Largest production of millets. Despite above opportunities, the ..

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India’s policy of price intervention in the agricultural sector has done more harm than benefit. It has created a skewed agricultural market and complicated matters related to international trade rules. Critically discuss.

The agricultural sector provides employment to nearly 45% population and is crucial to India’s food security. Thus, numerous price interventions exist to support the sector: Direct Benefit Transfer to farmers, e.g. PM-Kisan. Guaranteed crop procurement at pre-decided prices, e.g. MSP, PM-Aasha. Material support, e.g. Subsidised electricity, water supply, fertilizers, seeds, etc. Impact of price interventions: ..

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Indian agriculture needs to move towards GM food crops, in order to ensure the food security of the country. Critically examine in context of concerns raised towards introduction of GM crops.

Recently, Genetically Modified food crops drew attention, as Indian-origin food shipments in European Union were found to violate GM content percentage. Genetically modified food crops are those in which modifications are introduced in their genes to enhance certain qualities like shelf-life, pest resistance, yield, etc. E.g. BT cotton for increased pest resistance. GM crop for ..

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Throwing light on the role of off-budget borrowings, explain how it helps the government in raising funds for various expenditures. Also examine its desirability.

Off-budget borrowings refer to government borrowings not accounted in budget or fiscal deficit. These are borrowed by government agencies and/or PSUs from market or other innovative sources. E.g. FCI’s borrowings from market. Role in helping government raise funds: Enhance fiscal space of the government, as off-budget borrowings are not accounted in the fiscal deficit. It ..

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