Page-25 of UPSC Mains Model Questions - August, 2022

While focusing on the importance of agriculture extension services in India, highlight the challenges faced in implementing it. Discuss the role of National Mission on Agricultural Extension and Technology (NMAET) in this context.

Agriculture extension services refer to information and education, as well as other supporting services to farmers, to help enhance agricultural productivity and efficiency, e.g. M-Kisan (mobile based information). Importance of extension services: Availability of correct information to help make informed decisions on crops, such as m-Kisan provides information about climate vagaries. Information about new technologies ..

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Highlight the fundamental reasons behind the employment problem that India is facing currently. Also, suggest a way forward.

Unemployment is defined as a situation when a person actively searching for employment is unable to find work. It is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. According to recent data from the Center for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), India’s unemployment rate rose to 7.83% in April 2022. India employment problem: ..

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Despite having the potential to become a maritime power house, India cannot utilize its full potential until it integrates the dispersed logistic activities of maritime trade. Comment.

Maritime trade accounts for approximately 90% of India’s trade by volume and 60% of India’s trade by value. Dispersed nature of maritime Logistic is a hindrance to efficient Logistics. Dispersed nature of maritime trade Logistics: High number of clearances and regulatory hurdles. Lack of inter-modal connectivity. Lack of hinterland connectivity. Different regulatory regions for major ..

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The need of the hour is to do away with traditional accounting methods like GDP calculation and move towards more comprehensive methods that accounts for Natural Capital and Ecosystem Services as well to establish link between economy and environment. In this context, discuss the initiatives taken by India.

Natural capital and Ecosystem services (NC&EC) refers to value stored in land, water, forest, and other natural resources, e.g. Forest – provisioning food, shelter, disaster resilience, etc. Accounting for natural capital and ecosystem services is crucial for realizing their importance, as well as understanding the economic link of environment with economy: Accounting in GDP – ..

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The risk and impact of natural disasters has increased a manifold in recent times because of the rapid and unplanned urbanization along with high population growth. Discuss the measures needed to address the issue in India.

As per UN-DESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), about 50% of India’s population will live in urban areas by 2050. This, accompanied by climate change has increased both risk and impact of natural disasters. Hazard + vulnerability = Disaster Urbanization – Increased risk of disasters: Rapid urbanization: Increased burden on natural resources ..

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National Hydrogen Mission can be a game changer for India’s rising energy demands. Discuss the benefits and challenges associated.

Finance Minister in budget of 2021-22 announced a National Hydrogen Mission to give a boost to Green Hydrogen fuel in India’s energy mix. India’s current energy status: Goal – 450 GW by 2030. Current status – 136 GW, 38% of total installed capacity. Rising energy demands: Reasons Rapid urbanization. Increasing lifestyle changes, (270 million out ..

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