India’s Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy

India’s Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy was launched by the Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change at the COP27.

What is Long-Term Low Emissions Development Strategy?

The 2015 Paris Agreement requires all parties to create a long-term low greenhouse gas emissions development strategies (LT-LEDS) based on their various responsibilities and capabilities as per the different national-level circumstances.

The COP26, held in Glasgow in November 2021, required the parties who have not yet communicated their LT-LEDS to submit them by COP27. India’s LT-LEDS was prepared after extensive consultations with various government entities, state governments, research institutes and civil society organizations.

What are the salient features of the LT-LEDS?

  • Rationalization of resource usage with consideration to energy security.
  • Transition from fossil fuels will be ensured in a just, smooth, sustainable and all-inclusive manner.
  • Boosting biofuel usage (especially ethanol blending in petrol) and increasing EV penetration and green hydrogen fuel to minimise carbon emissions from transport sector. India seeks to increase the use of EVs, ethanol blending by 20 per cent in 2025.
  • Sustainable and climate resilient urban development will be ensured via smart city initiative, integrated planning of cities for boosting the energy and resource efficiency, effective green building codes and fast-paced developments in innovative solid and liquid waste management.
  • Industrial Sector’s growth will be based on the principles of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ and ‘Make in India’. The transition to low carbon development in this sector will not disrupt energy security, energy access and jobs. Energy efficiency in the sector will be ensured via the implementation of Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme, National Hydrogen Mission and high level of electrification in all relevant processes and activities. Material efficiency and recycling will be enhanced to shift towards circular economy.
  • India has a strong record of increasing forest and tree cover over the last 30 years along with high economic growth. Wildfire incidents in the country are below the global levels. Forests and tree cover absorbed 15 per cent of carbon emissions in 2016. India is currently on track towards achieving its NDC target of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of additional carbon sequestration in forest and tree cover by 2030.
  • Transitions to low carbon development pathway requires the development of new technology, infrastructure and other transition costs. The estimated cost of this is over trillions of dollars by 2050. Developed countries’ climate finance like grants and concessional loans will play a major role in the country’s transition to low-carbon development.

Approach to LT-LEDS

India’s approach to LT-LEDS is based on 4 key considerations:

  • India has high energy requirements for the economic development
  • India’s commitment to pursuing low-carbon strategies for development is based on national circumstances
  • India’s contribution to global warming is very little and its historic contribution to cumulative GHG emissions is minuscule despite having around 17 per cent share of the global population.
  • India requires climate resilience.

The LT-LEDS emphasizes India’s right to an equitable and fair share of the global carbon budget, which is the practical implementation of India’s call for climate justice. This ensures that there are no hurdles while achieving the vision of rapid economic growth and transformation while protecting the environment.



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