Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority

Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) is proposed to be setup at both central and state level to ensure expeditious and transparent utilization of amounts realised in lieu of forest land diverted for non-forest purpose. The utilization of funds is expected to mitigate the impact of diversion of such forest land. CAMPA Funds […]


What role is played by Elephants in Ecosystem?

Elephants are the gardeners of our forests. An elephant eats abundant amounts of fruit. Some seeds may be defecated intact in a different area located at a distance. From this excreta, a new plant may sprout if conditions are right. In this way the elephants help in seed dispersal in faraway places. Elephants being an […]

Tropical Rainforests: Extent, Type, Soil, Ecosystem and Biodiversity

The tropical rainforest is earth’s most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity. It occurs under optimal growing conditions: abundant precipitation and year round warmth. The World Wildlife Fund’s biome classification puts the tropical rainforests under Tropical Moist Broadleaf Forest. Distribution of Tropical Rainforests The Tropical rain forests is roughly located within […]

Ecological Pyramids of Numbers, Biomass and Energy

An ecological pyramid shows the relationship of biomass, productivity or energy at different trophic levels. The primary producers are generally shown at the bottom and apex predators at the top. The pyramids are different for different ecosystems. There are three types of Ecological Pyramids as follows: Pyramid of numbers: This shows the number of individual […]

Difference between Food Chain and Food Web

Food chain refers to a linked feeding series in an ecosystem. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other and the  sequence of organisms through which energy and materials are transferred, in the form of food, from one tropic level to another. The following graphics shows a […]