Narmada or Rewa River is the third largest river that completely flows within India after Ganga & Godavari. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India. Narmada flows in a rift valley between the Satpura and Vindhya Ranges. It has been mentioned as Nammadus in the Periplus of Erythrean Sea.
Source and Course
Narmada origins in a small tank called Narmada Kund located on the Amarkantak hill in the Anuppur District of eastern Madhya Pradesh. The river descends from the Amarkantak hill range at the Kapildhara falls over a cliff and meanders in the hills flowing through a tortuous course crossing the rocks and islands up to the ruined palace of Ramnagar. Between Ramnagar and Mandla, (25 km (15.5 mi)), further southeast, the course is comparatively straight with deep water devoid of rocky obstacles. The Banger joins from the left. The river then runs north–east in a narrow loop towards Jabalpur. Close to this city, after the Dhuandhara falls, Narmada enters three narrow valleys between the Vindhya scarps in the north and the Satpura range in the South. The southern extension of the valley is wider at most places. These three valley sections are separated by the closely approaching line of the scarps and the Satpura hills. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India and flows westwards over a length of 1,312 km before draining through the Gulf of Cambey into the Arabian Sea, 30 km (18.6 mi) west of Bharuch of Gujarat
Between Vindya and Satpura ranges, Narmada extends over an area of 98,796 km² . The basin covers large areas in the states of Madhya Pradesh (86%), Gujarat (14%) and a comparatively smaller area (2%) in Maharashtra. In the river course of 1,312 km, there are 41 tributaries, out of which 22 are from the Satpuda range and the rest on the right bank are from the Vindhya range.
Narmada is one of the most sacred rivers of India. Geologically, Narmada River is older than the river Ganges. The river has been mentioned by Ptolemy in the Second century AD as Namade. In Puranas, it has been mentioned as Rewa. In Indian history, Kannada emperor from Chalukya dynasty Pulakeshin II is said to have defeated emperor Harshavardhana of Kannauj on the banks of Narmada. The valley is famous for the gorgeous Maheshwari saris, which are handwoven; comfortable in warm and cold weather, dressy and yet light; these saris have a dedicated, select following among Indian women. The Bhimbetka caves are located in a dyke of the Narmada valley at about 45 km northeast of Bhopal.