Central Armed Police Forces
CRPF, BSF, ITBP, CISF and SSB are collectively called Central Armed Police Forces. They come under Ministry of Home Affairs.
Central Reserve Police Force
The Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939. Besides law enforcement and counter-insurgency duties, the CRPF plays a major role in the General Elections. Some other notes are as follows:
- Rapid Action Force (RAF) is a specialised battalion of the CRPF formed in 1992, to deal with communal riots and related civil unrest.
- Parliament Duty Group is an elite CRPF unit tasked to provide armed protection to Parliament House and are trained in combating nuclear and bio-chemical attacks, rescue operations and behavioural management.
Border Security Force
Until 1965, the Pakistan border was manned by the state armed police battalions. This protection of borders was not enough and Pakistan attacked taking benefit of this loophole in 1965. This attack exposed the inadequacy of the state police to protect the border and thus BSF was established to man India’s Border with Pakistan. K F Rustamji was its first Director General. It is currently the world’s largest border guarding force.
- They are assigned with given the task in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations recently.
- During peace, they prevent smuggling and any other illegal activities on the Border and carry out anti-infiltration duties. They also collect trans-border intelligence.
- Guarding of Prisoners of War camps and acting as guides to the Army in border areas are their primary work when they help army during war.
Central Industrial Security Force
The CISF came into existence in 1969 to provide integrated security cover to the Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) which, occupied the commanding heights of the economy in the 70s.
- CISF is currently providing security cover to nuclear installations, space establishments, airports, seaports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and ever heritage monuments. It is also in charge of airport security at all commercial airports in India.
- Among the important responsibilities recently entrusted to the CISF are the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, VIP Security, Disaster Management and establishment of a Formed Police Unit of the UN at Haiti.
Sashastra Seema Bal
It is a armed border force formerly known as Special Service Bureau raised in 1963 to counter the Chinese invasion. SSB is the first border guarding force which decided to recruit women battalions. SSB is also engaged in Counter Insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and Anti-naxal operations in Jharkhand and Bihar and participates in election duties.
The role of SSB consists of the following:
- To promote sense of security among the people living in the border areas.
- To prevent trans-border crimes, and unauthorised entries entry or exit from the territory of India.
- To prevent smuggling and other illegal activities.
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
ITBPF is a specialized mountain Force and most of the men are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers.
The ITBP has many major roles to be play, they are
- Vigil on the northern borders
- Detection and prevention of border violations.
- Promotion of the sense of security among the local population.
- Check illegal immigration and trans-border smuggling.
- Provide security to sensitive installations and threatened VIPs.
- Restore and preserve order in any area in the event of disturbance.
- To maintain the peace in the country.
The ITBP is trained in Medical Camp, disaster management, and nuclear, biological and chemical disasters. The manpower of ITBP are exposed to high velocity storms, snow blizzards, avalanches, and landslides, besides the hazards of high altitude and extreme cold.
National Security Guard
The National Security Guard (NSG) is a special force utilised for counter-terrorism activities and was created under the National Security Guard Act in 1986. They are the second line of defence to the nation. The NSG members are also known as Black Cats because of the black drill cotton coveralls and balaclavas or helmets they wear.
The NSG’s specific goals include:
- Neutralization of terrorist threats
- Handling hijacking situations in air and on land.
- Bomb disposal (search, detection and neutralisation of IEDs).
- PBI (Post Blast Investigation)
- Engaging and neutralizing terrorists in specific situations.
- Hostage Rescue.
The task of providing VVIP security for high-risk VVIPs in India is done by the Special Rangers Group (SRG) of the NSG.
Railway Protection Force
Railway Protection Force (RPF) under Ministry of Railways, ensures the safety, security and boosts the confidence of the travelling public in the Indian Railways. They fight against criminals in protecting railway passengers, passenger area and railway property. The force facilitates passenger-travel and security by removing all anti-social elements from trains, railway premises and passenger area.
Defence Security Corps
The Defence Security Corps (DSC), provides security at Defence Ministry sites. The CISF and the DSC provide security at Indian Ordnance Factories, India’s nuclear laboratories and Defence Research and Development Organisation.