Largest states by Coastline in India
The total coastline of India measures about 7,517 km, which is distributed among nine coastal states and four Union Territories; and almost entire coast of India falls within tropics. The nine coastal states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal. The Four coastal Union Territories are Puducherry, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The coasts of India include West coast, East coast and Coast of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands.
Largest states by Coastline
Gujarat is strategically located with largest share in India’s coastline, followed by Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
|Daman & Diu||—|
Over 22.6% of total coasts of India are of islands (Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep and Diu islands). The Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of India cover an area of about 2,305,143 km², enclosed within 200 nautical miles (that is : 370.4 km) from the land. Out of this, 1,641,514 km² is shared by India’s coasts of mainland while 663,629 km² is of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This implies that all the areas on the continental shelves (Indian Continental Shelf- 468,000 km2) are under national sovereignty.
From various points of view, Indian coasts are very much important. India has large coastal wetlands which cover an area of over 41,401 km². This is 27.13% of the Total area covered by wetlands in India. In contrast with the Inland wetlands, coastal wetlands are much less however. The inland wetlands of India cover 105649 Km², which accounts Inland wetlands of India share around 69.22% of Total wetland area. (a question was asked in Prelims 2012 on this)
Origin of the western and eastern coasts of India is generally attributed to the faulting and subsidence of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal towards the close of the Eocene Period. This implies that the alluvial deposits along these coasts are of very recent origin, ranging from Pliocene to recent times.