Which Articles of the Indian Constitution may be amended by a simple majority?

Different degrees of rigidity attach to different portions of the Constitution, depending on their importance and significance. Constitutional provisions of comparatively less significance can be amended by simple majority as is adopted for passing any ordinary law in the Parliament. Several Articles of the Constitution make provisions of a tentative nature, and the Parliament has been given power to make laws making provisions different from what these Articles provide for. Such a law can be made by the ordinary legislative process, and is not to be regarded as an amendment of the Constitution and is not subject to the special procedure prescribed in Article 368. The amendments contemplated in Articles 5, 169 and 239-a can be made by simple majority. These Articles are specifically excluded from the purview of the procedure prescribed in Article 368.

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