Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) finds it origin in 1990s when by 1992; both the United States and the then Soviet Union had declared moratoria on nuclear testing. They were later joined by the UK. This set the stage for the negotiations on an international treaty which bans nuclear explosions for Test purposes.

  • Each State Party under CTBT has to undertake not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control.
  • The parties have also to undertake to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.
  • CTBT was adopted by the United States General Assembly on September 10, 1996. As of now, it has not entered into force. As of now, 157 states have ratified the CTBT and another 25 states have signed but not ratified it.
  • Despite so many members signed and ratified the treaty, it could not come into force because it requires all the 44 states mentioned in its Annex-2 to ratify it. After 180 days of the day on which 44 annex-2 countries ratify the CTBT, the treaty would come into force.
  • These 44 states are those countries who took part in its negotiations. China, Egypt, Iran, Israel and the United States have signed but not ratified the Treaty; India, North Korea and Pakistan have not signed it.

United States does not ratify the treaty because they have put some conditions such as:

  • There should be a Science Based Stockpile Stewardship Program in which experiments can be continued in a highly safe environment.
  • No impact should be on experiments in nuclear technology which have immense applications in human well being.
  • A basic capability to resume tests should be maintained.
  • Treaty monitoring capabilities and operations programmes should be included.
  • US should be allowed to withdraw from CTBT under the standard “supreme national interests”.

So far the treaty has not seen the light of the day because of its dubious doubtful regime.

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