Personal Computers

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1. A personal computer is basically a multipurpose computer which is designed specifically for individual use. It is thus more likely to be used by an end-user.


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2. Personal Computers in the 2010s as compared to earlier models had access to a wide range of softwares viz. commercial softwares, freeware, free and open source software etc.


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3. Most modern microprocessors are usually contained in a single integrated circuit chip that contains a CPU, memory, peripheral interfaces and even other components of the computer. These are usually called the systems on a chip.


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4. ENIAC was the first personal computer. It had become operational in 1946.  ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.


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5. ENIAC was designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of University of Pennsylvania. There were many design engineers who had assisted them.


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6. Pier Giorgio Perotto had first developed the magnetic card system for program storage. It is a type of card which can store data by modification of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on a card.


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7. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor. It was built in 1972 and only a few hundred units were sold. Micral is a series of microcomputers produced by a French company R2E.


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8. First true personal computer Altair 8800 which was created by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems MITS. It was based on 8-bit Intel 8080 microprocessor. It was introduced in 1974.


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9. Commodore PET was the first successfully mass marketed personal computer. Apple II and also TRS-80 all together was referred to as the 1977 Trinity.


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10. A workstation is a high-end personal computer which was originally made for technical, mathematical and scientific applications. They are used for computer-aided design, drafting and modelling, computation-intensive scientific and engineering calculations, processing of images etc.


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11. A gaming computer is basically a simple desktop computer which has high-performance hardware like a powerful video card, memory and processor. These are essential for the handling of video games.  These are called PC games.


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12. A touchscreen is basically an input device which is present on top of an electronic visual display. It is found in devices like Nintendo Game Consoles, EVMs, Personal computers, POS systems.


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13. The popularity of smart devices has increased the popularity of touchscreens for both portable and functional electronics. These are found in the medical line, heavy industries, ATMs, room automation etc.


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14. Nettops are a special type of desktops introduced by Intel in February of 2008. Nettops were characterised by lost cost and thin functionality in addition to intel atom processor. The latter allows these to consume less power.


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15. A home theatre PC is a convergence device which is used as a Digital Video Recorder, digital photo viewer, video player, music player etc.


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16. A laptop is similar to any desktop but is portable with all the hardware and other peripherals built into a single unit. They have a clamshell design.


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17. A subnotebook has all the features of a standard laptop computer but it has smaller physical dimensions. They are larger than hand-held computers and usually play on full-versions of the desktop/laptop OS.


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18. Unlike desktops, the desktop replacement computer has full capabilities of the desktop computer but is not mobile. They are in the category of a bulkier laptop.


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19. A Desktop Replacement computer is also known as desknotes i.e. a combination of desktop and notebook.


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20. A netbook is also called a mini notebook as it is a small, lightweight and inexpensive laptop often marketed as a companion device. It is suited for general computing tasks and other web-based applications.


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