Functions and Capabilities of Computers

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1. In computing, a nibble (often nybble or even nyble to simulate the spelling of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet. As a nibble contains 4 bits, there are sixteen possible values, so a nibble corresponds to a single hexadecimal digit (thus, it is often referred to as a “hex digit” or “hexit”).


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2. The basic functions of a computer include speed, accuracy, reliability, adaptability and storage. A computer cannot make predictions by itself. It can only make assessments based on the data which is fed into it.


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3. A computer basically has four different functions. They are input, processing, storage and accuracy.


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4. Input, storage,  processing and output are four basic functions of the computer. Input basically stands for entering data or receiving or accepting information from outside sources.


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5. A general purpose computer has four components like the Arithmetic Logical Unit, the Control Unit, the memory and input-output devices. These parts are interconnected by buses.


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6. Each of the electrical circuits is arranged in logic gates so that one of the circuits may control the other circuits.


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7. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) information. When the circuit is on, it represents a "1" and a "0" when it is off in a positive logic representation.


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8. In computer architecture, a bus is a communication system which transfers data between the components inside a computer or even between computers.


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9. The bus connecting the CPU and memory is one of the defining characteristics of the system and is known as the system bus. Mostly the CPU and Memory they work synchronously.


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10. A sound card is not an input device of the computer.  A trackball is a pointing device which consists of a ball held by a socket.


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11. A computer is much more than an arithmetic number crunching device and performs many other operations like copy, paste, delete, print etc.


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12. The correct sequence of stages of data processing is Data Collection-Input Raw Data-Processing of Data-Information-Output


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13. The program counter which is commonly known as the instruction pointer is actually a processor register that points where a computer is in its program sequence.


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14. Processors usually get instructions from memory but the sequence is usually changed by placing of a new value in the PC like branches also called jumps, subroutine calls and returns.


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15. A processor register is a quickly accessible location which is available to a computer's CPU.  Registers usually consist of a small amount of fast storage and may be read-only or write-only.


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16. A highly common property of a computer program is the locality of reference. This basically refers to accessing of the same values repeatedly and frequently holding these in registers for improvement of performance.


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17. Registers are normally measured by the number of bits they can hold like an 8-bit register, a 32-bit register etc.


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18. A General Purpose Register can hold both Data and Address.  This means they are combined data/address registers.


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19. All three i.e. Memory Buffer Register, Memory Data Register and Memory Address Register represent a collection of storage registers which are located on separate chips from CPU.  They all fetch information from memory.


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20. CPUs are typically constructed on a single integrated circuit known as the microprocessor.


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21. Logic Operations involve Boolean logic: AND, OR, XOR and NOT. These are used for creating complicated conditional statements and processing boolean logic.


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22. Hard Disk Drives, Floppy Disk, Optical Disc Drives serve as both input and output devices.


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23. All of the mentioned options are called as Operating Systems.


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24. ARM is a commonly used Assembly language. Its full form is known as Advanced RISC Machine.


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25. A text-based user interface is Command-line Interface. It is a text-based application is one whose primary input and output are based on the text.


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