Notes: Chalukya king Pulakesin II had defeated Harshavardhan on the banks of River Narmada in 618 AD. Pulakeshin, who ruled from the Chalukyan capitalof Badami, challenged Harsha’s conquests. The former had established himself as ‘lord paramount’ of the south, as Harsha had of the north. Unwilling to tolerate the existence of a powerful rival in the south, Harsha had marched from Kanauj with a huge force. Such was Pulakeshin’s efficiency in guarding the passes of the Narmada that Harsha was compelled to accept the river as the demarcation and retire from the field of battle after losing a major part of his elephant force.