Population & Environment

Black Death

We all know that the growth of the Human Population and increased use of resources is having a large effect on earth. In Europe between 1348 to 1350, there was most devatsing pandemic which was mainly because of the Bubonic Plague. This pandemic started from China and killed almost 30-60% of the population of Europe and is called the “Black Death“. At that time the estimated population of the world was 450 million and it got reduced to 350-375 million in 1400.

The Pressure of Population

The population of the World has increased ever after. Today the estimated population of the World is 6,899,400,000 and as per the current estimations World population is expected to reach between 7.5 and 10.5 billion in the year 2050.

The following table shows the Milestones of the world population.

Population

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Year

1804

1927

1960

1974

1987

1999

2012

2025-2030

2045–50

Years elapsed

123

33

14

13

12

13

15-20

20–25

 

Figures in Billion.

We see from the above table that

  1. Time elapsed from 1 billion to 2 billion was maximum i.e. 123 years.
  2. This elapsing time decreased till 1999, when Population became 6 Billion.
  3. The projected time elapsed is now increasing till the population becomes 9 Billion.

So, today, Top 10 countries with world’s largest population are as follows

Country

Population

 People’s Republic of China

1,342,290,000

 India

1,193,970,000

 United States

312,049,000

 Indonesia

238,400,000

 Brazil

194,213,000

 Pakistan

171,816,000

 Bangladesh

164,425,000

 Nigeria

158,259,000

 Russia

141,927,297

 Japan

127,380,000

 

Impacts of Population Pressure:

The increasing population Pressure caused the pollution of air, water, soil and destruction of the habitats. This led to the reduction of the biodiversity and due to the population pressure there has always a conflict between the conservation measures and the interests of the local people.

  • As the new tools and weapons were developed, the hunting and harvesting led to extinction of many species such as Dodo, (Raphus cucullatus), which was endemic to Mauritius and got wiped out in the late 17th century. The exticnt bird still is the national symbol of Mauritius.
  • The development of agriculture continues to lead the removal of the natural vegetation over huge areas to make room for growth of the crops. The consistent use of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers has affected the natural organisms.
  • The industrial revolution has led to an upsurge in the demand for energy and other resources, which increased the amount of land disturbed by the extraction of materials such as fossil fuels, metal ores, and gravel. More fossil fuels were burnt, releasing large amounts of gases such a carbon dioxide, sulfuur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere.
  • The growing human population, the expectation , the expectation of better living conditions, and easier transport, has led to the building of larger cities and more roads. Pollution of water, land, and air by human wastes and exhaust gases from vehicles has increased.

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