Does Indian Constitution possess all the essential characteristics of a federal constitution?
A Constitution which embodies a federal system has normally five characteristics which include distribution of powers, supremacy of the Constitution, written Constitution, rigidity and authority of courts. All the five essential characteristics of a federal Constitution are present in the Indian Constitution. The Constitution establishes dual polity. The powers of the Union or the States are clearly demarcated. The Indian Constitution is written and is considered supreme. Enactments in excess of the powers of the Union or the States are invalid. Moreover, no amendment which makes any changes in the status or powers of the Centres or the units is possible without the concurrence of the Union and of majority of the States. Finally, the Constitution establishes a Supreme Court to decide disputes between the Union and the States, or the States inter se and to interpret finally the provisions of the Constitution.