Which among the following apparently impressed Jahangir to issue a farman in 1613 A.D. to the English to establish a factory at Surat?
[A] Reconciliation between the English and Portuguese [B] A secret offer of naval help to the Mughal emperor to oust the Portuguese [C] A heavy dose of bribe to Nur Jahan [D] The defeat of Portuguese naval squadrons by the English
Correct Answer: D [The defeat of Portuguese naval squadrons by the English]
In 1613 AD , Jahangir issued a farman permitting English to establish a factory permanently at Surat. In 1612, the newly formed company had sent four ships under Captain Thomas Best to trade with India. These were mercantile ships but were capable of defending themselves. The defeated the Portuguse, who were alread there in Surat for at least 100 years. This defeat apparently so impressed the Emperor Jehangir that he granted the British squadron a firman to trade.