What do you understand by Climate Exiles? Discuss the types and current trends.
Climate exiles, also termed as environmental migrants are the people who are forced to migrate from their homes because of the abrupt and long-term impact of the local climates. It results in deterioration of well-being and disrupts the source of livelihood stands. Such kind of changes are droughts, desertification, sea-level rise, and also disruption of seasonal weather patterns. Such people either migrate to different regions of their own country or different countries.
Three types of Climate exiles are proposed by the International Organisation for Migration.
- Environmental Emergency Migrants: They are temporary migrants who leave their residential places due to a sudden environmental disaster or catastrophe.
- Environmental Forced Migrants: They are forced to move due to deteriorating conditions of the environment.
- Environmental Motivated Migrants: They choose to leave to avoid possible future problems caused by environmental degradation.
Several other categories are there i.e. Pressured environmental migrants, who displaced after predicting such events; Imperative environmental migrants, those who are permanently displaced; Temporary environmental migrants, those who migrated after suffering from a single event.
The problem of climate change and impacts like droughts, sea-level rise, and water shortages is causing many more to leave their homes and move to safer places. A recent World Bank report says Latin America, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa are going to witness the migration of above 143 million people by 2050 as a result of climate change events.
The variability of monsoon season, temperature rise, crop failures will cause migration from the Gangetic plains of India and from the rice-growing northeastern region of Bangladesh and coastal region.
The problem of migration needs immediate attention and solution through framing suitable policies that will ensure adequate livelihood, social justice, and a proper social balance.