What characters can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50% of world population residing in Monsoon Asia?
Climate is the long-term average weather condition, over a particular area for the past several years. The meteorological variables i.e. humidity, pressure, temperature, wind, and precipitation are measured to understand the characteristics of the climate.
Koeppen’s classification of the Indian climate divided the climatic groups into many parts i.e. Tropical Savanna type, Tropical Monsoon Type, Tropical Moist Climate, Semi-Arid Steppe type, Cold humid type, and so on.
Different seasons are found in the Asian subcontinent. As divided by the Meteorological department of India, It is four.
The cold-weather season
- It is found between the latter part of November and the beginning of December. High pressure area develops over northern India.
- Western disturbances, originating from the Mediterranean Sea arrive in India via the northwestern part. Snowfall occurs over western Himalayas and the hailstorms damage the crop.
- The cold weather precipitation is suitable for Rabi crop cultivation.
The hot weather season
- It is found between mid-march to mid-June as the sun moves towards the north.
- Kalbaishakhi (Norwester) occurs in West Bengal and Assam.
- Hot dry wind (Loo) is found in the Northern plains of India.
- Mango showers in Kerala and Cherry Blossoms in Karnataka are found.
Southwest monsoon season
- It is found between June and September. Heavy rainfall occurs.
- The spatial distribution of rainfall is uneven. Heavy rains cause floods in some areas and other parts experience droughts & famines.
- Mawsynram experiences the heaviest rainfall.
- The retreating period of monsoon starts in mid-September and ends in mid-october.
- The Coromandel coast receives rainfall.
Vegetation and agriculture
- A large part of the Indian territory depends on the monsoon season for agricultural growth. It provides natural irrigation.
- The uneven rainfall causes a different thickness of vegetation
- The trees are actually deciduous in nature.
The monsoon climate is different and significant from others because of the temperature, precipitation, and resultant seasons. It contributes a lot in the agriculture, vegetation, and the socio-economic culture of India.
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