What are the symptoms of Nipah Virus in humans? What care should be taken to reduce its cases from occurrence?

Nipah virus infection is�zoonotic disease i.e. disease transmitted to humans from animals. The virus belongs to a�new genus termed Henipavirus. The�natural host of the virus is fruit bat. The virus is present in bat urine and potentially, bat faeces, saliva, and birthing fluids. Pigs can also act as intermediate hosts.
It was first identified in 1998 at Kampung Sungai Nipah village, Malaysia. The virus is named after this village.
Symptoms in humans:

  • Fever, muscle pain, and respiratory problems
  • Drowsiness, disorientation and delirium
  • Inflammation of the brain
  • Late onset of Encephalitis
  • Persistent convulsions, personality changes
  • Patient can slip into coma within 48 hours

Preventive Measures:

  • There is no vaccine for disease either for humans or animals
  • The main treatment for those infected is intensive supportive care and supportive medicines
  • According to WHO,�ribavarin�can reduce the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and convulsions associated with the disease
  • Individuals infected need to be hospitalised and isolated
  • The virus threats in need of urgent research and development

Surveillance systems should be established to detect the virus quickly and to initiate appropriate control measures. The Nipah virus is classified as a biosecurity level 4 agent and the tests should be carried out in special labs to prevent its spread.


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