022 - Salient Features of Worlds Physical Geography

What is Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)? Discuss the reasons for recent decline in the AMOC and its associated impact.

Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is a phenomenon of large ocean current circulation in the Atlantic Ocean, that redistributes heat, salinity, etc., between parts of the ocean, as below. Warm north Atlantic current takes warm waters towards coast of Norway, heating surrounding coasts. A branch of this warm current, flows along coast of western Europe. Cold ..

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What are Walker circulations and how does it influence the Indian monsoons?

Walker circulation or east-west circulation or southern oscillation is a system developed especially in the South Pacific Ocean, resulting in East-West pressure differences creating currents. When the pressure is suddenly increased in the West Pacific Ocean, water from the west Pacific ocean moves along the wind to East Pacific. This is called the low phase ..

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Winter Solstice and its Significance

The word solstice is derived from the Latin word ‘solstitum’ which stands for the Sun standing still. It is on this day the Sun seems to stand still at the Tropic of Capricon & then reverses its direction as it reaches the southernmost position. It is also referred to as the sunturn. The Winter solstice ..

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What is El Nino? Has the extreme El Niño become more often?

El Niño is a climate phenomenon that takes place over the equatorial Pacific. When there is a warming of the sea surface temperature in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific Ocean, it is known as El Niño. When the opposite cooling phase takes place, it is known as La Niña. While El Niño causes warmer ..

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What are the findings of the IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate?

The Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate has been published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It was the last in a series of three reports on specific themes that IPCC has published last year. Findings of the Report The frequency of extreme El Nino and La Nina ..

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Had there been no Himalayas, what would have been the winter climate in north India?

Himalayas run across 2500 km in East-West direction, creating a natural wall between Central Asia and Indian sub-continent. In winter, it blocks the cold polar air blowing southwards from Central Asia from entering India, thus keeping India 3° to 8°C warmer than the regions of similar cold latitudes in Asia. Had there been no Himalayas, ..

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