Page-5 of 002 - Indian Literature

With reference to women, despite being one of the earliest and most authoritative law texts, there are several contradicting verses in manusmriti. Discuss the stand of Manu giving your arguments.

Contrary to the common belief that Manusmriti is anti-women, it holds women in high esteem. According to it, the land where women are honoured becomes the favourite abode of gods. There is one shloka which mentions “Na stree svaatantryam arhati”, which has been translated as “woman does not deserve independence”. This shloka has been taken ..

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Examine the various kinds of Sutras as a part of Kalpa tradition of ancient Indian literature.

Kalpa means Ritual Canon. It contains the sacrificial practice and systematic sutras. There are three kinds of Sutras which form part of Kalpa: Śrautasūtras, which are based on the Shruti, and teach the performance of the great sacrifices, requiring three or five sacrificial fires. Smartasūtras, or rules based on the Smriti or tradition. The Smartasūtras ..

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Upanishadas are often called Vedanta. Why?

The main motto of the Upanishads is “Knowledge Awards Salvation”. Upanishads are called Vedanta (the end of the Veda) firstly, because they denote the last phase of the Vedic period and secondly, because they reveal the final aim of the Veda. The Oldest Upanishads are Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishads which date as back as the ..

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Aranyakas don't lay much emphasis on rites, ritual and sacrifices but have philosophy and mysticism. Examine the statement focussing on key content of the Aranyakas.

The Aranyakas were written in Forests and are concluding parts of the Brahmans. Aranyakas don’t lay much emphasis on rites, ritual and sacrifices but have philosophy and mysticism. This is because aranyakas were written mainly for the hermits and students living in the jungles. They lay emphasis not on sacrifices but on meditation. They are ..

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Throw light on the contribution of Basaveshwara and Vachana Sahithya on Indian culture, literature and religion.

Basaveshwara was a part of the Bhakti movement and one of the main proponents of Veerashaivism. The pre-Basaveshwara society was embedded with idol worship, superstitious beliefs, evil spirits and believed in sacrifices of animals to be made to the deities. Caste system was rampant and exploitation of lower classes by upper classes. Basaveshwara rejected the ..

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Abhinavgupta had created some great works of importance on almost all fields such as intellectual, moral, religious and spiritual. However, they are not finding recognition as they should have got? What do you think are the reasons and what can be done to address the problems? Discuss citing relevance of Abhinavagupta's teaching to contemporary society and world.

Abhinavagupta wrote Abhinavabharati, a commentary of Naṭyasastra of Bharata. He introduced a ninth rasa called Santam which denotes the peace or tranquillity. These total nine rasas make the Navarasa. His other works comprises of various currents of intellectual thinking such as Aesthetics, dramaturgy, music, tantra, yoga, literary criticism, devotional poetry, cognitive science, emotions, philosophy of ..

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