Throw light on the role of external state and non-state actors in creating security challenges to India. Discuss some of the measures adopted by the government to handle the same.

Published: May 3, 2018

Kautilya has written that a state could be at risk from four types of threats viz. internal, external, externally-aided internal and internally-aided external. India is currently facing four major threats viz. Separatism in Jammu and Kashmir; Insurgency in North East India, Left Wing Extremism and Terrorism in the Hinterland.
All these threats have an active support from the external state and non-state actors.
Of these the state and non-state actors from neighborhood are creating severe challenges for India.
State and non-state actors in Pakistan
The shared history and complexities in the relationships with Pakistan has created serious challenges for India. The cause of concern is the role of the state actors who are actively pursuing the agenda of bleeding India to satisfy their foreign policy agenda.
Pakistan military is reported to be providing benefits to the militants group for infiltrating across the border to create havoc in India. It is also reported that Pakistan military is providing training assistance to the terror groups operating from its soil.
The security experts assert that the active nexus between the state and non-state actors is creating challenge for India’s security.
State and non-state actors in China
It is said that the insurgent and militant group operating in north-east and the naxal movements are getting financial support from China. It is said that China is developing a strategic alliance with the militant groups as per its policy of containing India. But this engagement of China with militant groups is not officially recognised or endorsed either by Chinese or Indian government.
State and non-state actors in Nepal
India has an open border with Nepal. CPN (Maoists) are formidable power in Nepal. Once non-state actors they are a recognised political party in Nepal now. Maoist political parties are upping the ante against India saying India is interfering in its political process. India’s red corridor is said to be extending from Tirupati in Nepal to Pashupati in Nepal. Thus, Nepal can significantly add to India’s Maoist menace by joining hands with the rebels in the red corridors of India. The unfolding political and security scenario in Nepal would have to be closely monitored.
State and non-state actors in Bangladesh
With the friendly regime led by Awami league in power in Bangladesh the state actors are cooperating rather than creating security challenges for India.  The porous borders and increasing fundamentalism pose a serious challenge for the security of India.
Illegal migrants from Bangladesh are causing serious challenges and have become a cause for polarisation of Indian society.
It’s not just the state and non-state actors in neighborhood but also from other parts of the globe are posing serious challenge. The protests against the Kundankulam power plant was said to be supported by the state agencies of the west to create friction in India-Russia relationship. The Khalistan groups in Canada are looking for opportunities to pull down India.
Measures taken by India to address the challenge

  • Actively pursuing the agenda of comprehensive convention against terrorism to bring all the state actors on the same page in fight against terrorism.
  • Using bilateral and multilateral forums like BRICS, SCO, G20, BIMSTEC to build an alliance against terrorism.
  • Strengthening of the borders by the implementation of recommendations of Madhukar Gupta committee report and formation of the border protection grids along the eastern front.
  • Isolating Pakistan and adopting the technique of name and shame to force Pakistan to act against the non-state actors operating from its soil.

As India claims itself to be a superpower, India needs to build a strong resilient mechanism to fight against the external state and non-state actors creating security challenges for India. India’s security cannot be at the mercy of the external agents.

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