The state policies and actions have proved to be inadequate to address the challenges of rapid urbanisation. Analyse.

As per the World Bank, 34% of Indian population resides in urban areas and contributes 63% to India’s GVA.

Pull factors to cities:

  • Job opportunities.
  • Healthcare and education facilities.
  • Recreational options.
  • Better income.
  • Absence of caste rigidity.

State policies and actions:

  • Smart cities mission
  • AMRUT scheme
  • PMAY (U)
  • HRIDAY scheme
  • SBM (U)
  • JJM (U)


  • Slum proliferation
  • Traffic congestion
  • High cost of living
  • Pollution
  • Poor urban infrastructure
  • Insanitation

Inadequacy of state policies:

  • As per WWF, by 2050, 30 Indian city’s will be at high water risk.
  • As per Niti Aayog, the majority of Indian cities face water shortage.
  • As per AQI, 22 Indian cities or among 30 most polluted cities globally.
  • Vulnerability of cities to traffic collapse and floods.
  • Slow impact of smart city solutions.

Steps needed:

  • Prompt monitoring and feedback mechanism.
  • Climate resilience in urban planning.
  • Basic amenities for all.
  • Decrease rural-urban gaps.

Economic survey’s basic amenities index is a useful urban assessment tool, which can be used to monitor the progress.


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